Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (2024)

Table of Contents
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 A Monthly Journal TALES, BIOGRAPHY, EPISODES IN IRISH AND AMERICAN HISTORY, POETRY,MISCELLANY, ETC. VOL. XV. BOSTON: THOMAS B. NOONAN & COMPANY. 1886. Contents. Donahoe's Magazine. Encyclical Letter OF OUR MOST HOLY LORD LEO XIII., BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE POPE, LEO PP XIII. His Eminence John Cardinal McCloskey. ARCHBISHOP OF NEW YORK, CARDINAL PRIEST OF THE TITLE OF SANCTA MARIASUPRA MINERVAM. The Pope and the Mikado. Order of the Buried Alive. Harvard College and the Catholic Theory of Education. An Affecting Incident at Sea. Sing, Sing for Christmas. Dead Man's Island. CHAPTER XVII. CHAPTER XVIII. Alone. A Midnight Mass. The Hero of Lepanto. FOOTNOTES: The Church and Progress. FOOTNOTES: Honor to the Germans. Vindication. From the German of Reinick. Tracadie and the Trappists. Gladstone at Emmet's Grave. HOW THE UNMARKED TOMBSTONE OF THE MARTYR LOOKED. Gerald Griffin. FOOTNOTES: Rev. Father Fulton, S. J., Private Judgment a Failure. Priests and People Mourning. SLEEP ON. In Memory of Father John O'Brien, C. SS. R. Crown and Crescent. Four Thousand Years. Abolishing Barmaids. Christianity in China. "Faro's Daughters." Juvenile Department. A CHILD'S DAY. THE CHRISTMAS TURKEY. THE CHRISTMAS STOCKING. THE CHRISTMAS CRIB. CHRISTMAS GIFTS FOR THE BOYS. ROBIN REDBREAST. FOOLISH GIRLS. LITTLE QUEEN PET AND HER KINGDOM. Useful Knowledge The Humorist DONAHOE'S MAGAZINE. Notes on Current Topics. "IT IS FASHIONABLE TO BE IRISH, NOW." Hon. Hugh O'Brien's Magnificent Record as Mayor of Boston. Mr. P. J. Maguire for Alderman. Death of the Vice-President. Personal. Notices of Recent Publications. The Catholic Publication Society Co., N. Y. Benziger Bros., N. Y., Cin., and St. Louis. D. & J. Sadlier & Co., New York. John Murphy & Co., Baltimore, Md. Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Ind. MISCELLANEOUS. MUSIC. Obituary. BISHOP. CLERGYMEN. SISTER. LAY PEOPLE.

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Title: Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886

Author: Various

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Language: English

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*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DONAHOE'S MAGAZINE, VOLUME 15, NO. 1, JANUARY 1886 ***

A Monthly Journal

CONTAINING

TALES, BIOGRAPHY, EPISODES IN IRISH AND AMERICAN HISTORY, POETRY,MISCELLANY, ETC.

AN EXTREMELY INTERESTING VOLUME.

VOL. XV.

January, 1886, to July, 1886.

BOSTON:

THOMAS B. NOONAN & COMPANY.

1886.

Transcriber's note: Minor typos have been corrected and footnotes havebeen moved to the end of the chapters. This issue only contains January,1886.

Contents.

A.
An Affecting Incident at Sea,32.
Alone,42.
A Midnight Mass,42.
Abolishing Barmaids,80.
A Valiant Soldier of the Cross,132.
A Child of Mary,144.
A Christmas Carol,165.
A Silly Threat,173.
A Chapter of Irish History,223.
About Critics,256.
A Thought for Easter,460.
B.
Bay State Faugh-a-Ballaghs,229, 347.
Blaine on Britain,438.
Before the Battle,550.
C.
Crown and Crescent,79.
Christianity in China,81.
Capital and Labor—Strikes,232.
Columbus and Ireland,368.
Chanson,406.
Canossa at Last,522.
Chinese Labor,505.
D.
Dead Man's Island: The story of an Irish Country Town,33, 145.
Drunkenness in Old Times,351.
Deaths of the Apostles,460.
Decrees of the Third Plenary Council,529.
Death of Rev. Father Ryan,570.
E.
Encyclical Letter of Our Most Holy Lord Leo XIII, by Divine Providence, Pope,1.
Encyclical Proclaiming the Jubilee,259.
England and her Enemies,264.
Echoes from the Pines,310.
Emmet's Rebellion,335.
Emmet's Love,435.
Early Irish Settlers in Virginia,523.
Etoile du Soir,501.
F.
Four Thousand Years,80.
Faro's Daughters,82.
Frau Hütt: A Legend of Tyrol,308.
Farewell, my Home,345.
Father Matt,497.
G.
Gladstone at Emmet's Grave,61.
Gerald Griffin,62, 139.
George Washington,142.
Give Charity while you Live,333.
Gladstone,536.
H.
His Eminence John Cardinal McCloskey, with Portrait,18.
Harvard College and the Catholic Theory of Education,31.
Honor to the Germans,57.
Historical Notes of Tallaght,405.
Hanco*ck and the Irish Brigade,411.
Heroism,542.
Home Rule,565.
I.
Interest Savings Banks,228.
Ireland: A Retrospect,266.
Ingratitude of France in the Irish Struggle,277.
Instances of Divine Vengeance,445.
Ireland our Mother Land,447.
J.
Juvenile Department,83, 179, 270, 373, 469, 552.
John Scotus Erigena,306.
John C. Schayer,568.
K.
Knights of Labor,433.
L.
Low-necked Dresses,367.
Leo the Great,466.
M.
Mary E. Blake,139.
Musings from Foreign Poets,312.
Much-a-Wanted,339.
Mixed Marriages,344.
Miss Mulholland's Poems,369.
Major-General John Newton,401.
May Ditty,465.
"My Victim:" A Tale,506.
N.
Notes on Current Topics,97, 193, 289, 385, 481, 573.
Notices of Recent Publications,105, 205, 301, 381, 397, 487, 585.
O.
Order of the Buried Alive,30.
Obituary,107, 207, 302, 398, 496, 586.
Our Neighbors,168.
Our Gaelic Tongue,222.
O'Connell and Parnell,278.
Our New Cardinal,359.
Orders of Knighthood,366.
Our Saviour's Personal Appearance,414.
P.
Private Judgment a Failure,72.
Priests and People Mourning,74.
Personal,104, 300, 396, 493, 584.
Parnell's Strength,172.
Pen Sketches of Irish Litterateurs,209.
Pneumonia,462.
R.
Rev. Father Fulton, S. J.,71.
Rapidity of Time's Flight,178.
Reminiscences of the Battle of Kilmallock,503.
Rev. Father Scully's Gymnasium,537.
Rabies (Hydrophobia),543.
S.
Sing, Sing for Christmas,32.
Southern Sketches,125, 215, 113, 440, 516.
Senator John J. Hayes,235.
Saints and Serpents,237.
Seeing the Old Year Out,370.
Sir Thomas Grattan Esmond, Bart.,415.
St. Rose,434.
Shamrocks,440.
Sorrowing Mother,515.
Science and Politics,502.
T.
The Pope and the Mikado,29.
The Hero of Lepanto,44.
The Church and Progress,49.
Tracadie and the Trappists,59.
The Humorist,96, 210, 306.
The Columbian Army of Derry,113.
The Penitent on the Cross,120.
The Celt on America,121.
The Late Father Tom Burke,166.
The Old Year's Army of Martyrs,170.
The Pope on Christian Education,174.
Te Deum,176.
The Poems of Rosa Mulholland,248.
The Celts of South America,258.
The Welcome of the Divine Guest,305.
The Ursuline Convent of Tenos,316.
The Church and Modern Progress,328.
The Annunciation,339.
The Ten-Commandment Theory,346.
The Paschal Candle,352.
The Irish as Conspirators,362.
The National Catholic University,407.
Thot's of Ireland,423.
The Middogue,424.
The Passion,430.
The Holy Mass,446.
The Instruments of the Passion,464.
The New Era,465.
Terrence V. Powderly,561.
The Keegan Challenge Fund,564.
The Providence Cathedral,546.
Three Decisions,551.
U.
Useful Knowledge,95, 209, 305.
V.
Vindication,58.
W.
What English Catholics are Contending For,276.
William J. Onahan,467.

Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (1)His Eminence John Cardinal McCloskey.
See page 18.

[Pg 1]

Donahoe's Magazine.

Vol. XV.BOSTON, JANUARY, 1886.No. 1.

"The future of the Irish race in this country, will depend largely upontheir capability of assuming an independent attitude in Americanpolitics."—Right Rev. Doctor Ireland, St. Paul, Minn.

Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (2)

Encyclical Letter

OF OUR MOST HOLY LORD LEO XIII., BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE POPE,

Concerning the Christian Constitution of States.

To all the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops and Bishops of the CatholicWorld, in the Grace and Communion of the Apostolic See,

LEO PP XIII.

Venerable Brethren, Health and Apostolic Benediction.

The work of a merciful God, the Church looks essentially, and from thevery nature of her being, to the salvation of souls and the winning forthem of happiness in heaven, nevertheless, she also secures even in thisworld, advantages so many and so great that she could not do more, evenif she had been founded primarily and specially to secure prosperity inthis life which is worked out upon earth. In truth, wherever the Churchhas set her foot she has at once changed the aspect of affairs, coloredthe manners of the people as with new virtues and a refinement unknownbefore—as many people as have accepted this have been distinguished fortheir gentleness, their justice, and the[Pg 2] glory of their deeds. But theaccusation is an old one, and not of recent date, that the Church isincompatible with the welfare of the commonwealth, and incapable ofcontributing to those things, whether useful or ornamental, which,naturally and of its own will, every rightly-constituted State eagerlystrives for. We know that on this ground, in the very beginnings of theChurch, the Christians, from the same perversity of view, werepersecuted and constantly held up to hatred and contempt, so that theywere styled the enemies of the Empire. And at that time it was generallypopular to attribute to Christianity the responsibility for the evilsbeneath which the State was beaten down, when in reality, God, theavenger of crimes, was requiring a just punishment from the guilty. Thewickedness of this calumny, not without cause, fired the genius andsharpened the pen of Augustine, who, especially in his Civitate Dei,set forth so clearly the efficacy of Christian wisdom, and the way inwhich it is bound up with well-being of States, that he seems not onlyto have pleaded the cause of the Christians of his own time, but to havetriumphantly refuted these false charges for all time. But this unhappyinclination to complaints and false accusations was not laid to rest,and many have thought well to seek a system of civil life elsewhere thanin the doctrines which the Church approves. And now in these lattertimes a new law, as they call it, has begun to prevail, which theydescribe as the outcome of a world now fully developed, and born of agrowing liberty. But although many hazardous schemes have beenpropounded by many, it is clear that never has any better method beenfound for establishing and ruling the State than that which is thenatural result of the teaching of the Gospel. We deem it, therefore, ofthe greatest moment, and especially suitable to our Apostolic function,to compare with Christian doctrine the new opinions concerning theState, by which method we trust that, truth being thus presented, thecauses of error and doubt will be removed, so that each may easily seeby those supreme commandments for living, what things he ought tofollow, and whom he ought to obey.

It is not a very difficult matter to set forth what form and appearancethe State should have if Christian philosophy governed the commonwealth.By nature it is implanted in man that he should live in civil society,for since he cannot attain in solitude the necessary means of civilizedlife, it is a Divine provision that he comes into existence adapted fortaking part in the union and assembling of men, both in the Family andin the State, which alone can supply adequate facilities for theperfecting of life. But since no society can hold together unless someperson is over all, impelling individuals by efficient and similarmotives to pursue the common advantage, it is brought about thatauthority whereby it may be ruled is indispensable to a civilizedcommunity, which authority, as well as society, can have no other sourcethan nature, and consequently God Himself. And thence it follows that byits very nature there can be no public power except from God alone. ForGod alone is the most true and supreme Lord of the world, Whomnecessarily all things, whatever they be, must be subservient to andobey, so that whoever possess the right of governing, can[Pg 3] receive thatfrom no other source than from that supreme chief of all, God. "Thereis no power except from God." (Rom. xiii. 1.) But the right of rulingis not necessarily conjoined with any special form of commonwealth, butmay rightly assume this or that form, provided that it promotes utilityand the common good. But whatever be the kind of commonwealth, rulersought to keep in view God, the Supreme Governor of the world, and to setHim before themselves as an example and a law in the administration ofthe State. For as God, in things which are and which are seen, hasproduced secondary causes, wherein the Divine nature and course ofaction can be perceived, and which conduce to that end to which theuniversal course of the world is directed, so in civil society He haswilled that there should be a government which should be carried on bymen who should reflect towards mankind an image as it were of Divinepower and Divine providence. The rule of the government, therefore,should be just and not that of a master but rather that of a father,because the power of God over men is most just and allied with afather's goodness. Moreover, it is to be carried on with a view to theadvantage of the citizens, because they who are over others are overthem for this cause alone, that they may see to the interests of theState. And in no way is it to be allowed that the civil authority shouldbe subservient merely to the advantage of one or of a few, since it wasestablished for the common good of all. But if they who are over theState should lapse into unjust rule; if they should err througharrogance or pride; if their measures should be injurious to the people,let them know that hereafter an account must be rendered to God, andthat so much the stricter in proportion as they are intrusted with moresacred functions, or have obtained a higher grade of dignity, "Themighty shall be mightily tormented." (Wisd. vi. 7.)

Thus truly the majesty of rule will be attended with an honorable andwilling regard on the part of the citizens; for when once they have beenbrought to conclude that they who rule are strong only with theauthority given by God, they will feel that those duties are due andjust, that they should be obedient to their rulers, and pay to themrespect and fidelity, with somewhat of the same affection as that ofchildren to their parents. "Let every soul be subject to higherpowers." (Rom. xiii. 1.)

Indeed, to contemn lawful authority, in whatever person it is vested, isas unlawful as it is to resist the Divine will; and whoever resiststhat, rushes voluntarily to his destruction. "He who resists the power,resists the ordinance of God; and they who resist, purchase tothemselves damnation." (Rom. xiii. 2.) Wherefore to cast awayobedience, and by popular violence to incite the country to sedition, istreason, not only against man, but against God.

It is clear that a State constituted on this basis is altogether boundto satisfy, by the public profession of religion, the very many andgreat duties which bring it into relation with God. Nature and reasonwhich commands every man individually to serve God holily andreligiously, because we belong to Him and coming from Him must return toHim, binds by the same law the civil community. For men living togetherin society are no less under the power of God than are[Pg 4] individuals; andsociety owes as much gratitude as individuals do to God, Who is itsauthor, its preserver, and the beneficent source of the innumerableblessings which it has received. And therefore as it is not lawful foranybody to neglect his duties towards God, and as it is the first dutyto embrace in mind and in conduct religion—not such as each may choose,but such as God commands—in the same manner States cannot, without acrime, act as though God did not exist, or cast off the care of religionas alien to them or useless or out of several kinds of religion adoptindifferently which they please; but they are absolutely bound, in theworship of the Deity to adopt that use and manner in which God Himselfhas shown that He wills to be adored. Therefore among rulers the name ofGod must be holy, and it must be reckoned among the first of theirduties to favor religion, protect it, and cover it with the authority ofthe laws, and not to institute or decree anything which is incompatiblewith its security. They owe this also to the citizens over whom theyrule. For all of us men are born and brought up for a certain supremeand final good in heaven, beyond this frail and short life, and to thisend all efforts are to be referred. And because upon it depends the fulland perfect happiness of men, therefore, to attain this end which hasbeen mentioned, is of as much interest as is conceivable to everyindividual man. It is necessary then that a civil society, born for thecommon advantage, in the guardianship of the prosperity of thecommonwealth, should so advance the interests of the citizens that inholding up and acquiring that highest and inconvertible good which theyspontaneously seek, it should not only never import anythingdisadvantageous, but should give all the opportunities in its power. Thechief of these is that attention should be paid to a holy and inviolatepreservation of religion, by the duties of which man is united to God.

Now which the true religion is may be easily discovered by any one whowill view the matter with a careful and unbiassed judgment; for thereare proofs of great number and splendor, as for example, the truth ofprophecy, the abundance of miracles, the extremely rapid spread of thefaith, even in the midst of its enemies and in spite of the greatesthindrances, the testimony of the martyrs, and the like, from which it isevident that that is the only true religion which Jesus Christinstituted Himself and then entrusted to His Church to defend and tospread.

For the only begotten Son of God set up a society on earth which iscalled the Church, and to it He transferred that most glorious anddivine office, which He had received from His Father, to be perpetuatedforever. "As the Father hath sent Me, even so I send you." (John xx.21.) "Behold I am with you all days even to the consummation of theworld." (Matt. xxviii. 20.) Therefore as Jesus Christ came into theworld, "that men might have life and have it more abundantly" (John x.10), so also the Church has for its aim and end the eternal salvation ofsouls; and for this cause it is so constituted as to embrace the wholehuman race without any limit or circ*mscription either of time or place."Preach ye the Gospel to every creature." (Mark xvi. 15.) Over thisimmense multitude of men God Himself has set rulers with power togovern[Pg 5] them; and He has willed that one should be head of them all, andthe chief and unerring teacher of truth, and to him He has given thekeys of the kingdom of heaven. "To thee will I give the keys of thekingdom of heaven." (Matt. xvi. 19.) "Feed My lambs, feed My sheep."(John xxi. 16, 17.) "I have prayed for thee that thy faith may notfail." (Luke xxii. 32.) This society, though it be composed of men justas civil society is, yet because of the end that it has in view, and themeans by which it tends to it, is supernatural and spiritual; and,therefore, is distinguished from civil society and differs from it;and—a fact of the highest moment—is a society perfect in its kind andin its rights, possessing in and by itself, by the will and beneficenceof its Founder, all the appliances that are necessary for itspreservation and action. Just as the end, at which the Church aims, isby far the noblest of ends, so its power is the most exalted of allpowers, and cannot be held to be either inferior to the civil power orin any way subject to it. In truth Jesus Christ gave His Apostlesunfettered commissions over all sacred things, with the power ofestablishing laws properly so-called, and the double right of judgingand punishing which follows from it: "All power has been given to Me inheaven and on earth; going, therefore, teach all nations;... teachingthem to keep whatsoever I have commanded you." (Matt. xxviii. 18, 19,20.) And in another place He says: "If he will not hear, tell it to theChurch" (Matt. xviii. 17); and again: "Ready to punish alldisobedience" (2 Cor. x. 6); and once more: "I shall act with moreseverity, according to the powers which our Lord has given me untoedification and not unto destruction." (2 Cor. xiii. 10.)

So then it is not the State but the Church that ought to be men's guideto heaven; and it is to her that God has assigned the office of watchingand legislating for all that concerns religion, of teaching all nations;of extending, as far as may be, the borders of Christianity; and, in aword, of administering its affairs without let or hindrance, accordingto her own judgment. Now this authority, which pertains absolutely tothe Church herself, and is part of her manifest rights, and which haslong been opposed by a philosophy subservient to princes, she has neverceased to claim for herself and to exercise publicly: the Apostlesthemselves being the first of all to maintain it, when, being forbiddenby the readers of the Synagogue to preach the Gospel, they boldlyanswered, "We must obey God rather than men." (Acts v. 29.) This sameauthority the holy Fathers of the Church have been careful to maintainby weighty reasonings as occasions have arisen; and the Roman Pontiffshave never ceased to defend it with inflexible constancy. Nay, more,princes and civil governors themselves have approved it in theory and infact; for in the making of compacts, in the transaction of business, insending and receiving embassies, and in the interchange of otheroffices, it has been their custom to act with the Church as with asupreme and legitimate power. And we may be sure that it is not withoutthe singular providence of God that this power of the Church wasdefended by the Civil Power as the best defence of its own liberty.

God, then, has divided the charge of the human race between two[Pg 6] powers,viz., the ecclesiastical and the civil, the one being set over divine,and the other over human things. Each is the greatest in its own kind:each has certain limits within which it is restricted, and those limitsdefined by the nature and proximate cause of each; so that there is, aswe may say, a world marked off as a field for the proper action of each.But forasmuch as each has dominion over the same subjects, since itmight come to pass that one and the same thing, though in differentways, still one and the same, might pertain to the right and thetribunal of both, therefore God, Who foreseeth all things, and Who hasestablished both powers, must needs have arranged the course of each inright relation to one another, and in due order. "For the powers thatare ordained by God." (Rom. xiii. 1.) And if this were not so, causesof rivalries and dangerous disputes would be constantly arising; and manwould often have to stop in anxiety and doubt, like a traveller with tworoads before him, not knowing what he ought to do, with two powerscommanding contrary things, whose authority however, he cannot refusewithout neglect of duty. But it would be most repugnant, so to think, ofthe wisdom and goodness of God, Who, even in physical things, thoughthey are of a far lower order, has yet so attempered and combinedtogether the forces and causes of nature in an orderly manner and with asort of wonderful harmony, that none of them is a hindrance to the rest,and all of them most fitly and aptly combine for the great end of theuniverse. So, then, there must needs be a certain orderly connectionbetween these two powers, which may not unfairly be compared to theunion with which soul and body are united in man. What the nature ofthat union is, and what its extent, cannot otherwise be determined than,as we have said, by having regard to the nature of each power, and bytaking account of the relative excellence and nobility of their ends;for one of them has for its proximate and chief aim the care of thegoods of this world, the other the attainment of the goods of heaventhat are eternal. Whatsoever, therefore, in human affairs is in anymanner sacred; whatsoever pertains to the salvation of souls or theworship of God, whether it be so in its own nature, or on the otherhand, is held to be so for the sake of the end to which it is referred,all this is in the power and subject to the free disposition of theChurch: but all other things which are embraced in the civil andpolitical order, are rightly subject to the civil authority, since JesusChrist has commanded that what is Cæsar's is to be paid to Cæsar, andwhat is God's to God. Sometimes, however, circ*mstances arise whenanother method of concord is available for peace and liberty; we meanwhen princes and the Roman Pontiff come to an understanding concerningany particular matter. In such circ*mstances the Church gives singularproof of her maternal good-will, and is accustomed to exhibit thehighest possible degree of generosity and indulgence.

Such, then, as we have indicated in brief, is the Christian order ofcivil society; no rash or merely fanciful fiction, but deduced fromprinciples of the highest truth and moment, which are confirmed by thenatural reason itself.

Now such a constitution of the State contains nothing that can be[Pg 7]thought either unworthy of the majesty of princes or unbecoming; and sofar is it from lessening its imperial rights, that it rather addsstability and grandeur to them. For, if it be more deeply considered,such a constitution has a great perfection which all others lack, andfrom it various excellent fruits would accrue, if each party would onlykeep its own place, and discharge with integrity that office and work towhich it was appointed. For in truth in this constitution of the State,which we have above described, divine and human affairs are properlydivided; the rights of citizens are completely defended by divine,natural, and human law; and the limitations of the several offices areat once wisely laid down, and the keeping of them most opportunelysecured. All men know that in their doubtful and laborious journey tothe ever-lasting city they have at hand guides to teach them how to setforth, helpers to show them how to reach their journey's end, whom theymay safely follow; and at the same time they know that they have otherswhose business it is to take care of their security and their fortunes,to obtain for them, or to secure to them, all those other goods whichare essential to the life of a community. Domestic society obtains thatfirmness and solidity which it requires in the sanctity of marriage, oneand indissoluble; the rights and duties of husband and wife are orderedwith wise justice and equity; the due honor is secured to the woman; theauthority of the man is conformed to the example of the authority ofGod; the authority of the father is tempered as becomes the dignity ofthe wife and offspring, and the best possible provision is made for theguardianship, the true good, and the education of the children.

In the domain of political and civil affairs the laws aim at the commongood, and are not guided by the deceptive wishes and judgments of themultitude, but by truth and justice. The authority of the rulers puts ona certain garb of sanctity greater than what pertains to man, and it isrestrained from declining from justice, and passing over just limits inthe exercise of power. The obedience of citizens has honor and dignityas companions, because it is not the servitude of men to men, butobedience to the will of God exercising His sovereignty by means of men.And this being recognised and admitted, it is understood that it is amatter of justice that the dignity of rulers should be respected, thatthe public authority should be constantly and faithfully obeyed, that noact of sedition should be committed, and that the civil order of theState should be kept intact. In the same way mutual charity and kindnessand liberality are seen to be virtues. The man who is at once a citizenand a Christian is no longer the victim of contending parties andincompatible obligations; and, finally, those very abundant good thingswith which the Christian religion of its own accord fills up even themortal life of men, are acquired for the community and civil society, sothat it appears to be said with the fullest truth: "The state of thecommonwealth depends on the religion with which God is worshipped, andbetween the one and the other there is a close relation and connection."(Sacr. Imp. ad Cyrillum Alexandr, et Episcopus metrop. ef LabbeumCollect Conc., T. iii.) Admirably, as he is accustomed, did Augustinein many places dilate on the power of those good things, but especiallywhen[Pg 8] he addresses the Catholic Church in these words: "Thou treatestboys as boys, youths with strength, old men calmly, according as is notonly the age of the body, but also of the mind of each. Women thousubjectest to their husbands in chaste and faithful obedience, not forthe satisfaction of lust, but for the propagation of offspring, andparticipation in the affairs of the family. Thou settest husbands overtheir spouses, not that they may trifle with the weaker sex, but inaccordance with the laws of true affection. Thou subjectest sons totheir parents in a kind of free servitude, and settest parents overtheir sons in a benignant rule.... Thou joinest together, not merely insociety, but in a kind of fraternity, citizens with citizens, peopleswith peoples, and in fact the whole race of men by a remembrance oftheir parentage. Thou teachest kings to look for the interests of theirpeoples. Thou admonishest peoples to submit themselves to their kings.With all care thou teachest to whom honor is due, to whom affection, towhom reverence, to whom fear, to whom consolation, to whom admonition,to whom exhortation, to whom discipline, to whom reproach, to whompunishment, showing how all of these are not suitable to all, but yet toall affection is due, and wrong to none." (De Moribus Eccl. Cath.,cap. xxx., n. 63.) And in another place, speaking in blame of certainpolitical pseudo-philosophers, he observes: "They who say that thedoctrine of Christ is hurtful to the State, should produce an army ofsoldiers such as the doctrine of Christ has commanded them to be, suchgovernors of provinces, such husbands, such wives, such parents, suchsons, such masters, such slaves, such kings, such judges, and suchpayers and collectors of taxes due, such as the Christian doctrine wouldhave them. And then let them dare to say that such a state of things ishurtful to the State. Nay, rather they could not hesitate to confessthat it is a great salvation to the State if there is due obedience tothis doctrine." (Epist. cxxxviii., al. 5, ad Marcellinum, cap. ii.,15.)

There was once a time when the philosophy of the Gospel governed States;then it was that that power and divine virtue of Christian wisdom hadpenetrated into the laws, institutions and manners of peoples—indeedinto all the ranks and relations of the State; when the religioninstituted by Jesus Christ, firmly established in that degree of dignitywhich was befitting, flourished everywhere, in the favor of rulers andunder the due protection of magistrates; when the priesthood and thegovernment were united by concord and a friendly interchange of offices.And the State composed in that fashion produced, in the opinion of all,more excellent fruits, the memory of which still flourishes, and willflourish, attested by innumerable monuments which can neither bedestroyed nor obscured by any art of the adversary. If Christian Europesubdued barbarous peoples, and transferred them from a savage to acivilized state, from superstition to the truth; if she victoriouslyrepelled the invasions of the Mohammedans; if civilization retained thechief power, and accustomed herself to afford others a leader andmistress in everything that adorns humanity; if she has granted to thepeoples true and manifold liberty; if she has most wisely establishedmany institutions for the solace of wretchedness,[Pg 9] beyond controversy isit very greatly due to religion under whose auspices such greatundertakings were commenced, and with whose aid they were perfected.Truly the same excellent state of things would have continued, if theagreement of the two powers had continued, and greater things mightrightfully have been expected, if there had been obedience to theauthority, the sway, the counsels of the Church, characterized bygreater faithfulness and perseverance, for that is to be regarded as aperpetual law which Ivo of Chartres wrote to Pope Paschal II.: "When thekingdom and the priesthood are agreed between themselves, the world iswell ruled, the Church flourishes and bears fruit. But when they are atvariance, not only does what is little not increase, but even what isgreat falls into miserable decay." (Ep. ccxxxviiii.)

But that dreadful and deplorable zeal for revolution which was arousedin the sixteenth century, after the Christian religion had been throwninto confusion, by a certain natural course proceeded to philosophy, andfrom philosophy pervaded all ranks of the community. As it were, fromthis spring came those more recent propositions of unbridled libertywhich obviously were first thought out and then openly proclaimed in theterrible disturbances in the present century; and thence came theprinciples and foundations of the new law, which was unknown before, andis out of harmony, not only with Christian, but, in more than onerespect, with natural law. Of those principles the chief is that onewhich proclaims that all men, as by birth and nature they are alike, soin very deed in their actions of life are they equal and each is somaster of himself that in no way does he come under the authority ofanother; that it is for him freely to think on whatever subject helikes, to act as he pleases; that no one else has a right of ruling overothers. In a society founded upon these principles, government is onlythe will of the people, which as it is under the power of itself alone,so is alone its own proper sovereign. Moreover, it chooses to whom itmay entrust itself, but in such a way that it transfers, not so much theright, as the function of the government which is to be exercised in itsname. God is passed over in silence, as if either there were no God, oras if He cared nothing for human society, or as if men, whether asindividuals or in society, owed nothing to God, or as if there could beany government of which the whole cause and power and authority did notreside in God Himself. In which way, as is seen, a State is nothing elsebut a multitude, as the mistress and governor of itself. And since thepeople is said to contain in itself the fountain of all rights and ofall power, it will follow that the State deems itself bound by no kindof duty towards God; that no religion should be publicly professed; norought there to be any inquiry which of many is alone true; nor ought oneto be preferred to the rest; nor ought one to be specially favored, butto each alike equal rights ought to be assigned, with the sole end thatthe social order incurs no injury from them. It is a part of this theorythat all questions concerning religion are to be referred to privatejudgment; that to every one it is allowed to follow which he prefers, ornone at all, if he approves of none. Hence these consequences naturally[Pg 10]arise; the judgment of each conscience is without regard to law;opinions as free as possible are expressed concerning worshipping or notworshipping God; and there is unbounded license of thinking andpublishing.

These foundations of the State being admitted, which at the time are insuch general favor, it easily appears into how unfavorable a positionthe Church is driven. For when the conduct of affairs is in accordancewith the doctrines of this kind, to the Catholic name is assigned anequal position with, or even an inferior position to that of aliensocieties in the State; no regard is paid to ecclesiastical laws; andthe Church, which, by the command and mandate of Jesus Christ, ought toteach all nations, finds itself forbidden in any way to interfere in theinstruction of the people. Concerning those things which are of mixedjurisdiction, the rulers of the civil power lay down the law at theirown pleasure, and in this manner haughtily set aside the most sacredlaws of the Church. Wherefore they bring under their own jurisdictionthe marriages of Christians, deciding even concerning the marriage bond,concerning the unity, and the stability of marriage. They takepossession of the goods of the clergy because they deny that the Churchcan hold property. Finally, they so act with regard to the Church thatboth the nature and the rights of a perfect society being removed, theyclearly hold it to be like the other associations which the Statecontains, and on that account, if she possesses any legitimate means ofacting, she is said to possess that by the concession and gift of therulers of the State. But if in any State the Church retains her ownright, with the approval of the civil laws, and any agreement ispublicly made between the two powers, in the beginning they cry out thatthe interests of the Church must be severed from those of the State, andthey do this with the intent that it may be possible to act againsttheir pledged faith with impunity, and to have the final decision overeverything, all obstacles having been removed. But when the Churchcannot bear that patiently, nor indeed is able to desert its greatestand most sacred duties, and, above all, requires that faith be whollyand entirely observed with it, contests often arise between the sacredand the civil power, of which the result is commonly that the one who isthe weaker yields to the stronger in human resources. So it is thecustom and the wish in this state of public affairs, which is nowaffected by many, either to expel the Church altogether, or to keep itbound and restricted as to its rule. Public acts in a great measure areframed with this design. Laws, the administration of States, theteaching of youth unaccompanied by religion, the spoliation anddestruction of religious orders, the overturning of the civilprincipality of the Roman Pontiffs, all have regard to this end; toemasculate Christian institutes, to narrow the liberty of the CatholicChurch, and to diminish her other rights.

Natural reason itself convinces us that such opinions about the rulingof a State are very widely removed from the truth. Nature herself bearswitness that all power of whatever kind ultimately emanates from God,that greatest and most august fountain. Popular rule, however, whichwithout any regard to God is said to be naturally in the[Pg 11] multitude,though it may excellently avail to supply the fires of manyblandishments and excitements of many forms of covetousness, yet restson no probable reason, nor can have sufficient strength to ensure publicsecurity and the quiet permanence of order. Verily things under theauspices of these doctrines have come to such a pass that many sanctionthis as a law in civil jurisprudence, to wit, that sedition may rightlybe raised. For the idea prevails that princes are really nothing butdelegates to express the popular will; and so necessarily all thingsbecome alike, are changeable at the popular nod, and a certain fear ofpublic disturbance is forever hanging over our heads.

But to think with regard to religion, that there is no differencebetween unlike and contrary forms, clearly will have this issue—anunwillingness to test any one form in theory and practice. And this, ifindeed it differs from atheism in name, is in fact the same thing. Menwho really believe in the existence of God, if they are to be consistentand not ridiculous, will, of necessity, understand that the differentmethods of divine worship involving dissimilarity and conflict, even onthe most important points, cannot be all equally probable, equally good,and equally accepted by God. And thus that faculty of thinking whateveryou like and expressing whatever you like to think in writing, withoutany thought of moderation, is not of its own nature, indeed, a good inwhich human society may rightly rejoice, but, on the contrary, a fountand origin of many ills.

Liberty, in so far as it is a virtue perfecting man, should be occupiedwith that which is true and that which is good; but the foundation ofthat which is true and that which is good cannot be changed at thepleasure of man, but remains ever the same, nor indeed is it lessunchangeable than nature herself. If the mind assent to false opinions,if the will choose for itself evil, and apply itself thereto, neitherattains its perfection, but both fall from their natural dignity, andboth lapse by degrees into corruption. Whatever things, therefore, arecontrary to virtue and truth, these things it is not right to place inthe light before the eyes of men, far less to defend by the favor andtutelage of the laws. A well-spent life is the only path to that heavenwhither we all direct our steps; and on this account the State departsfrom the law and custom of nature if it allows the license of opinionsand of deeds to run riot to such a degree as to lead minds astray withimpunity from the truth, and hearts from the practice of virtue.

But to exclude the Church which God Himself has constituted from thebusiness of life, from the laws, from the teaching of youth, fromdomestic society, is a great and pernicious error. A well-regulatedState cannot be when religion is taken away; more than needs be,perhaps, is now known of what sort of a thing is in itself, and whithertends that philosophy of life and morals which men call civil. TheChurch of Christ is the true teacher of virtue and guardian of morals;it is that which keeps principles in safety, from which duties arederived, and by proposing most efficacious reasons for an honest life,it bids us not only fly from wicked deeds, but rule the motions of themind which are contrary to reason when it is not intended to reduce themto action. But to wish the Church in the discharge of its offices to besubject to the[Pg 12] civil power is a great rashness, a great injustice. Ifthis were done order would be disturbed, since things natural would thusbe put before those which are above nature; the multitude of the goodwhose common life, if there be nothing to hinder it, the Church wouldmake complete, either disappears or at all events is considerablydiminished, and besides, a way is opened to enmities and conflicts—howgreat the evil which they bring upon each order of government the eventhas too frequently shown.

Such doctrines are not approved by human reason, and are of the greatestgravity as regards civil discipline, the Roman Pontiffs ourpredecessors—well understanding what the apostolic office required ofthem—by no means suffered to go forth without condemnation. ThusGregory XVI., by Encyclical Letter, beginning Mirare vos, of August15, 1832, inveighed with weighty words against those doctrines whichwere already being preached, namely, that in divine worship no choiceshould be made; and that it was right for individuals to judge ofreligion according to their personal preferences, that each man'sconscience was to himself his sole sufficient guide, and that it waslawful to promulgate whatsoever each man might think, and so make arevolution in the State. Concerning the reasons for the separation ofChurch and State, the same Pontiff speaks thus: "Nor can we hope happierresults either for religion or the government, from the wishes of thosewho are eagerly desirous that the Church should be separated from theState, and the mutual good understanding of the sovereign secular powerand the sacerdotal authority be broken up. It is evident that theselovers of most shameless liberty dread that concord which has alwaysbeen fortunate and wholesome, both for sacred and civil interests." Tothe like effect Pius IX., as opportunity offered, noted many falseopinions which had begun to be of great strength, and afterward orderedthem to be collected together in order that in so great a conflux oferrors Catholics might have something which, without stumbling, theymight follow.

From these decisions of the Popes it is clearly to be understood thatthe origin of public power is to be sought from God Himself and not fromthe multitude; that the free play for sedition is repugnant to reason;that it is a crime for private individuals and a crime for States toobserve nowhere the duties of religion or to treat in the same waydifferent kinds of religion; that the uncontrolled right of thinking andpublicly proclaiming one's thoughts is not inherent in the rights ofcitizens, nor in any sense to be placed among those things which areworthy of favor or patronage. Similarly it ought to be understood thatthe Church is a society, no less than the State itself, perfect in kindand right, and that those who exercise sovereignty ought not to act soas to compel the Church to become subservient or inferior to themselves,or suffer her to be less free to transact her own affairs or detractaught from the other rights which have been conferred upon her by JesusChrist. But in matters however in complex jurisdiction, it is in thehighest degree in accordance with nature and also with the counsels ofGod—not that one power should secede from the other, still less comeinto conflict, but that that harmony and concord should be preservedwhich is most akin to the foundations of both societies.[Pg 13]

These, then, are the things taught by the Catholic Church concerning theconstitution and government of the State. Concerning these sayings anddecrees, if a man will only judge dispassionately, no form of Governmentis, per se, condemned as long as it has nothing repugnant to Catholicdoctrine, and is able, if wisely and justly managed, to preserve theState in the best condition. Nor is it, per se, to be condemnedwhether the people have a greater or less share in the government; forat certain times and with the guarantee of certain laws, suchparticipation may appertain, not only to the usefulness, but even to theduty of the citizens. Moreover, there is no just cause that any oneshould condemn the Church as being too restricted in gentleness, orinimical to that liberty which is natural and legitimate. In truth theChurch judges it not lawful that the various kinds of Divine worshipshould have the same right as the true religion, still it does nottherefore condemn those governors of States, who, for the sake ofacquiring some great good, or preventing some great ill, patiently bearwith manners and customs so that each kind of religion has its place inthe State. Indeed the Church is wont diligently to take heed that no onebe compelled against his will to embrace the Catholic Faith, for asAugustine wisely observes: "Credere non potest hom*o nisi volens."(Tract. xxvi., in Joan., n. 2.)

For a similar reason the Church cannot approve of that liberty whichgenerates a contempt of the most sacred laws of God, and puts away theobedience due to legitimate power. For this is license rather thanliberty, and is most correctly called by Augustine, "libertasperditionis" (Ep. cv., ad Donatistas. ii., n. 9); by the ApostlePeter, "a cloak for malice" (1 Peter ii. 16), indeed, since it iscontrary to reason, it is a true servitude, for "Whosoever committethsin is the servant of sin." (John viii. 34.) On the other hand, thatliberty is natural and to be sought, which, if it be considered inrelation to the individual, suffers not men to be the slaves of errorsand evil desires, the worst of masters; if, in relation to the State, itpresides wisely over the citizens, serves the faculty of augmentingpublic advantages, and defends the public interest from alien rule, thisblameless liberty worthy of man the Church approves, above all, and hasnever ceased striving and contending to keep firm and whole among thepeople. In very truth, whatever things in the State chiefly avail forthe common safety; whatever have been usefully instituted against thelicense of princes, consulting all the interests of the people; whateverforbid the governing authority to invade into municipal or domesticaffairs; whatever avail to preserve the dignity and the character of manin preserving the equality of rights in individual citizens, of allthese things the monuments of former ages witness the Catholic Church tohave always been either the author, the promoter, or the guardian.

Ever, therefore, consistent with herself, if on the one hand she rejectsimmoderate liberty, which both in the case of individuals and peoplesresults in license or in servitude; on the other she willingly and withpleasure embraces those happier circ*mstances which the age brings; ifthey truly contain the prosperity of this life, which is as it were astage in the journey to that other which is to endure everlastingly.[Pg 14]Therefore what they say that the Church is jealous of, the more modernpolitical systems repudiate in a mass, and whatever the disposition ofthese times has brought forth, is an inane and contemptible calumny. Themadness of opinion it indeed repudiates; it reproves the wicked plans ofsedition, and especially that habit of mind in which the beginnings of avoluntary departing from God are visible; but since every true thingmust necessarily proceed from God, whatever of truth is by searchattained, the Church acknowledges as a certain token of the Divine mind.And since there is in the world nothing which can take away belief inthe doctrines divinely handed down and many things which confirm this,and since every finding of truth may impel man to the knowledge orpraise of God Himself, therefore whatever may happen to extend the rangeof knowledge, the Church will always willingly and joyfully accept; andshe will, as is her wont in the case of other departments of knowledge,studiously encourage and promote those also which are concerned with theinvestigation of nature. In which studies, if the mind finds anythingnew, the Church is not in opposition; she fights not against the searchafter more things for the grace and convenience of life—nay, a very foeto inertness and sloth, she earnestly wishes that the talents of menshould, by being cultivated and exercised, bear still richer fruits; sheaffords incitements to every sort of art and craft, and by her ownvirtue directing by her own perfection all the pursuits of those thingsto virtue and salvation, she strives to prevent man from turning asidehis intelligence and industry from God and heavenly things.

But these things, although full of reasonableness and foresight, are notso well approved of at this time, when States not only refuse to referto the laws of Christian knowledge, but are seen even to wish to departeach day farther from them. Nevertheless, because truth brought to lightis wont of its own accord to spread widely, and by degrees to pervadethe minds of men, we, therefore, moved by the consciousness of thegreatest, the most holy, that is the Apostolic obligation, which we oweto all the nations, those things which are true, freely, as we ought, wedo speak, not that we have no perception of the spirit of the times, orthat we think the honest and useful improvements of our age are to berepudiated, but because we would wish the highways of public affairs tobe safer from attacks, and their foundations more stable, and thatwithout detriment to the true freedom of the peoples; for amongst menthe mother and best guardian of liberty is truth: "The truth shall makeyou free." (John viii. 32).

Therefore at so critical a juncture of events, Catholic men, if, as itbehooves them, they will listen to us, will easily see what are theirown and each other's duties in matters of opinion as well as ofaction. And in the formation of opinion, whatsoever things the RomanPontiffs have handed down, or shall hereafter hand down, each and everyone is it necessary to hold in firm judgment well understood, and asoften as occasion demands openly to declare. Now, especially concerningthose things which are called recently-acquired liberties, is itproper to stand by the judgment of the Apostolic See, and for each oneto hold what she herself holds.[Pg 15]

Take care lest some one be deceived by the honest outward appearance ofthese things; and think of the beginnings from which they are sprung;and by what desires they are sustained and fed in divers places. It isnow sufficiently known by experience of what things they are the causesin the State; how indiscriminately they bring forth fruit, of which goodmen and wise rightly do repent. If there should be in any place a State,either actual or hypothetical, that wantonly and tyrannically wages warupon the Christian name, and it have conferred upon it that character ofwhich we have spoken, it is possible that this may be considered moretolerable; yet the principles upon which it rests are absolutely suchthat, of themselves they ought to be approved by no man.

Now action may be taken in private and domestic affairs, or in affairspublic. In private life, indeed, the first duty is to conform one's lifeand manners to the precepts of the Gospel, and not to refuse, ifChristian virtue demands, something more difficult to bear than usual.Individuals, also, are bound to love the Church as their common mother;to keep her laws obediently; to give her the service of due honor, andto wish her rights respected, and to endeavor that she be fostered andbeloved with like piety by those over whom they may exercise authority.It is also of great importance to the public welfare diligently andwisely to give attention to the duties of citizenship; in this regard,most particularly, with that concern which is righteous amongstChristians, to take pains and pass effective measures so that publicprovision be made for the instruction of youth in religion and truemorality, for upon these things depends very much the welfare of everyState. Besides, in general, it is useful and honorable to stretch theattention of Catholic men beyond this narrower field, and to embraceevery branch of public administration. Generally, we say, because theseour precepts reach unto all nations. But it may happen in someparticular place, for the most urgent and just reasons, that it is by nomeans expedient to engage in public affairs, or to take an active partin political functions. But generally, as we have said, to wish to takeno part in public affairs would be in that degree vicious, in which itbrought to the common weal neither care, nor work; and on this accountthe more so, because Catholic men are bound by the admonitions of thedoctrine which they profess, to do what has to be done with integrityand with faith. If, on the contrary, they were idle, those whoseopinions do not, in truth, give any great hope of safety, would easilyget possession of the reins of government. This, also, would be attendedwith danger to the Christian name, because they would become mostpowerful who are badly disposed towards the Church; and those leastpowerful who are well disposed. Wherefore, it is evident there is justcause for Catholics to undertake the conduct of public affairs; for theydo not assume these responsibilities in order to approve of what is notlawful in the methods of government at this time; but in order that theymay turn these very methods, as far as may be, to the unmixed and truepublic good, holding this purpose in their minds, to infuse into all theveins of the commonwealth the wisdom and virtue of the Catholicreligion—the most healthy sap and blood, as it were. It was scarcelydone otherwise in the first[Pg 16] ages of the Church. For the manners anddesires of the heathen were divergent as widely as possible from themanners and desires of the Gospel; for the Christians had to separatethemselves incorrupt in the midst of superstition, and always true tothemselves, most cheerfully to enter every walk in life which was opento them. Models of fidelity to their princes, obedient, where lawful, tothe sovereign power, they established a wonderful splendor of holinesseverywhere; they sought the advantage of their neighbor, and to allothers to the wisdom of Christ; bravely prepared to retire from publiclife, and even to die if they could not retain honors, nor themagistracy, nor the supreme command with unsullied virtue. For whichreason Christian customs soon found their way, not only into privatehouses, but into the camps, into the senate, even into the imperialpalace. "We are of yesterday and we fill your everything, cities,islands, castles, municipalities, councils, the very camps, the rank andfile of the army, the officerships, the palace, the senate, the forum,"(Tertullian Apol., n. 37), so that the Christian faith, when it wasunlawful publicly to profess the Gospel, was not like a child crying inhis cradle, but grown up and already sufficiently firm, was manifest ina great part of the State.

Now, indeed, in these days it is as well to renew these examples of ourforefathers. For Catholics indeed, as many as are worthy of the name,before all things it is necessary to be, and to be willing to be,regarded as most loving sons of the Church; whatsoever is inconsistentwith this good report, without hesitation to reject; to use popularinstitutions as far as honestly can be to the advantage of truth andjustice; to labor, that liberty of action shall not transgress thebounds ordained by the law of nature and of God; so to work that thewhole of public life shall be transformed into that, as we have calledit, a Christian image and likeness. The means to seek these ends canscarcely be laid down upon one uniform plan, since they must suit placesand times very different from each other. Nevertheless, in the firstplace, let concord of wills be preserved, and a likeness of things to bedone sought for. And each will be attained the best, if all shallconsider the admonitions of the Apostolic See, a law of conduct, andshall obey the Bishops whom "the Spirit of God has placed to rule theChurch of God." (Acts xx. 28). The defence of the Catholic name, indeedof necessity demands that in the profession of doctrines which arehanded down by the Church the opinion of all shall be one, and the mostperfect constancy, and from this point of view take care that no oneconnives in any degree at false opinions, or resists with greatergentleness than truth will allow. Concerning those things which arematters of opinion, it will be lawful, with moderation and with a desireof investigating the truth, without injurious suspicions and mutualincriminations. For which purpose, lest the agreement of minds be brokenby temerity of accusation, let all understand: that the integrity of theCatholic profession can by no means be reconciled with opinionsapproaching towards naturalism or rationalism, of which the sumtotal is to uproot Christian institutions altogether, and to establishthe supremacy of man, Almighty God being pushed to one side. Likewise,it is unlawful to follow one line of duty in private and another inpublic, so that the authority of the Church[Pg 17] shall be observed inprivate, and spurned in public. For this would be to join togetherthings honest and disgraceful, and to make a man fight a battle withhimself, when, on the contrary, he ought always to be consistent withhimself, and never, in any the least thing or manner of living, declinefrom Christian virtue. But, if inquiry is made about principles, merelypolitical, concerning the best form of government, of civil regulationsof one kind or another, concerning these things, of course, there isroom for disagreement without harm. Those whose piety, therefore, isknown on other accounts, and whose minds are ready to accept the decreesof the Apostolic See, justice will not allow accounted evil because theydiffer on these subjects; and much greater is the injury if they arecharged with the crime of having violated the Catholic faith, or aresuspected, a thing we deplore done, not once only. And let all hold thisprecept absolutely, who are wont to commit their thoughts to writing,especially the editors of newspapers. In this contention about thehighest things, nothing is to be left to intestine conflicts, or thegreed of parties, but let all, uniting together, seek the common objectof all, to preserve religion and the State.

If, therefore, there have been dissensions, it is right to obliteratethem in a certain voluntary forgetfulness; if there has been anythingrash, anything injurious, to whomsoever this fault belongs letcompensation be made by mutual charity, and especially in obedience tothe Apostolic See. In this way Catholics will obtain two things mostexcellent; one that they will make themselves helps to the Church inpreserving and propagating Christian knowledge; the other that they willbenefit civil society; of which the safety is gravely compromised byreason of evil doctrines and inordinate desires.

These things, therefore, Venerable Brethren, concerning the Christianconstitution of States and the duties of individual citizens, we havedwelt upon; we shall transmit them to all the nations of the Catholicworld.

But it behooves us to implore, with most earnest prayers, the heavenlyprotection, and to beg of Almighty God these things which we desire andstrive after for His glory and the salvation of the human race, whosealone it is to illumine the minds and to quicken the wills of men andHimself to lead on to the wished for end. As a pledge of the Divinefavors, and in witness of our paternal benevolence to you, VenerableBrethren, to the Clergy, and to all the people committed to your faithand vigilance, we lovingly bestow in the Lord the Apostolic Benediction.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the first day of November, in the yearof Our Lord mdccclxxxv., of Our Pontificate the Eighth.

LEO PP. XIII.

Venerable Bede records: "It was customary for the English of all ranksto retire for study and devotion to Ireland, where they were hospitablyreceived, and supplied gratuitously with food, books and instruction."

[Pg 18]

His Eminence John Cardinal McCloskey.

ARCHBISHOP OF NEW YORK, CARDINAL PRIEST OF THE TITLE OF SANCTA MARIASUPRA MINERVAM.

The waning days of the year 1885 witnessed the peaceful decline, and thehappy Christian death, of one of the most remarkable men of the Irishrace in this country. His glorious obsequies in the magnificentCathedral which he completed and dedicated, produced a deep impressionon all classes, nor was there ever witnessed a greater and moreunanimous concord than pervaded the tributes of respect from the pressand pulpit of the land to this prince of the Catholic Church.

In a modest dwelling on Fort Greene, Brooklyn, fronting the road thatled to Newtown Turnpike, John McCloskey was born on the 10th of March,1810, while deep snow covered the fields far and wide, and ice chokedthe rapid current of the East River. His father, George McCloskey, hademigrated to this country from the county Derry, some years before, withhis wife, and by industry, thrift and uprightness was increasing thelittle store of means which he had brought to the New World. The boy wasnot endowed with a rugged frame, and few could promise either mother orchild length of days. Yet she lived to behold him a bishop.

Brooklyn was then but a suburb of the little city of New York; it didnot number five thousand inhabitants, and the scanty flock of Catholicshad neither priest nor shrine. The child of George McCloskey, was takento St. Peter's Church, New York, to be baptized, by the venerable JesuitFather Anthony Kohlmann. As he grew up he crossed the East River onSundays with his parents to attend that same church, then the only onein New York; it has just celebrated the centenary of its organization,as a congregation, and the life of the great Cardinal, which faded awayjust before that event, covers three quarters of its century.

George McCloskey was one of the few energetic Catholics, who, about1820, started the movement which led to the erection of St. James on JayStreet, and gave Brooklyn its first Catholic Church and futureCathedral. Meanwhile, his son carefully trained at home, was sent toschool at an early age; gentle and delicate, he had neither strength norinclination for the rough sports of his schoolmates; but was alwayscheerful and popular, studying hard and winning a high grade in hisclasses. Till the church in Brooklyn was built, the boy and his mothermade their way each Sunday to the riverside to cross by the onlyconveyance of those days, in order to occupy the pew which thelarge-hearted George McCloskey had purchased in St. Peter's, for inthose days pews were sold and a yearly ground rent paid. When St.Patrick's was opened, an appeal was made to the liberal to take pews inthat church also, and again the generous George McCloskey responded tothe call, purchasing a pew there also.[Pg 19]

This whole-souled Irish-Catholic built great hopes on the talents of hisson, and intended to send him to Georgetown College, of which FatherBenedict Fenwick, long connected with St. Peter's, had become president.But in the providence of God he was not to see him enter any college;while still in the prime of life, he was seized with illness, whichcarried him to the grave in 1820. Mrs. McCloskey was left with meanswhich enabled her to carry out the plans of her husband; but as FatherFenwick had left Georgetown, she acted on the advice of friends, andsent her son to the College of Mount St. Mary's, which had been foundednear Emmittsburg, by the Rev. John Du Bois, a French priest, who,escaping the horrors of the Revolution in his own country, and thesanguinary tribunals of his old schoolmate, Robespierre, had crossed theAtlantic to be a missionary in America.

Mount St. Mary's College, when young McCloskey entered it after thesummer of 1821, consisted of two rows of log buildings; "but such ashave often been in this country, the first home of men and institutionsdestined to greatness and renown." Humble as it was externally, however,the college was no longer an experiment; it had proved its efficiency asan institution of learning. Young McCloskey entered on his studies withhis wonted zeal and energy, and learned not only the classics of ancientand modern times, but the great lesson of self-control. Blessed with awonderfully retentive memory, a logical mind that proceeded slowly, notby impulse, his progress was solid and rapid; his progress in virtue wasno less so; every natural tendency to harsh and bitter judgment, orword, was by the principles of religion and faith checked and broughtunder control. If, in after life, he was regarded universally as mildand gentle, the credit must be given to his religious training, whichenabled him to achieve the conquest.

A fine stone college was rising, and with his fellow-students he lookedforward with sanguine hope to the rapidly approaching day, when thecollegians of Mount St. Mary's were to tread halls worthy of their AlmaMater, their faculty and themselves. Its progress was watched with deepinterest, when, in the summer of 1824, the students were roused oneSunday night by the cry of fire. An incendiary hand had applied thetorch to the new edifice. No appliances were at hand for checking theprogress of the flames; professors, seminarians, and collegians laboredunremittingly to save their humble log structures destined to be forsome time more the scene of their studious hours.

McCloskey joined in the address of sympathy which the pupils of MountSt. Mary's tendered to their venerated president. He beheld the energyand faith of that eminent man in the zeal with which he began the workanew, and completed the building again before the close of another year.Thus the talented young Catholic boy from New York State learned notonly the lore found in books, but the great lessons of patience,self-control, correspondence to the will of God. Before he closed hiscollege course, he saw Dr. Du Bois, called away from the institution hehad founded to assume, by command of the successor of St. Peter, theadministration of the diocese of New York. The good work continued underRev. Michael De Burgo Egan as President, and John McCloskey wasgraduated, in 1828, with high honors. At that[Pg 20] time Mount St. Mary's hadin the seminary twenty-five or thirty aspirants to the priesthood, andin the college nearly one hundred students. The early graduates of theMount are the best proof of the thorough literary course followed there,as well as the thorough knowledge and love of the faith inculcated.

Young McCloskey returned to the home of his mother in WestchesterCounty, N. Y., and looked forward to his future career in life. As oftenhappens, a family bias, or wish, rather than the judgment of the youngman himself, induces the first step. John McCloskey was to become alawyer. We are told that he began the study of co*ke and Blackstone, ofthe principles of law and the practice of the courts, in the office ofJoseph W. Smith, Esq., of New York. But the active mind was at worksolving a great problem. A fellow-student at college, his senior inyears, brilliant, poetic, zealous, had resolved to devote his life andtalents to the ministry, and had more than once portrayed to youngMcCloskey the heroism of the priestly life of self-devotion andsacrifice. The words of Charles C. Pise and his example had produced animpression greater than was apparent. McCloskey meditated, prayed andsought the guidance of a wise director. Gradually the conviction becamedeep and firm that God called him to the ecclesiastical state. He closedthe books of human law, renounced the prospects of worldly success, andresolved to prepare by study and seclusion, by prayer and self-mastery,for the awful dignity of the priesthood.

The next year he returned to Emmittsburg to enter the seminary as acandidate for holy orders from the diocese of New York. He was welcomedas one whose solid learning, brilliant eloquence, deep and tender piety,studious habits and zeal made it certain that he must as a priest renderessential service to the Church in this country. As a seminarian, and,in conjunction with that character, as professor, he confirmed the highopinion formed of him, and at an early day Bishop Du Bois fixed upon himas one to fill important positions in his diocese.

From the moment that he took possession of his See the Rt. Rev. Dr. DuBois had labored to give New York an institution like that which he hadbrought to so successful a condition in Maryland, reckoning as noughtthe advance of years and the heavy duties of the episcopate. It was nottill the spring of 1832, that he was able to purchase a farm at Nyack,in Rockland County, as the site for his seminary and college. To presideover it, he had already selected his seminarian, John McCloskey, whom hesummoned from Emmittsburg. The visitation of the cholera, however,prevented the progress of the undertaking, although the school wasopened. The corner-stone was laid on the 29th of May, 1833, and theerection of the main building was carried on till the second story wascompleted, when the bishop appealed to his flock to aid him by theircontributions.

On the 24th of January the old Cathedral in New York witnessed thesolemn ceremony of an ordination, and the Rev. John McCloskey was raisedto the dignity of the priesthood. The young priest was stationed atNyack; but his eloquent voice was heard and appreciated in the churchesof New York City. The first sermon which the young priest preached afterhis ordination is an index of the piety and devotion[Pg 21] which guided himthrough life. It was on devotion to the Blessed Virgin, and wasdelivered in the church reared in New York in honor of the Mother ofGod.

In the summer of 1834, the little chapel at Nyack, adjoining the risingcollege, was ready for dedication; but before the institution could beopened, the virulent declamations of a Brownell had inflamed the mindsof the ignorant peasantry in that neighborhood with religious hatred,and the college was denounced as an evil to be prevented. The torch ofthe incendiary soon laid the edifice in ashes.

The project of a seminary and college was thus indefinitely deferred,although Bishop Du Bois, with characteristic determination, resolved torebuild the blackened ruins and raise the college anew. So confident washe of success, that he would not appoint Rev. Mr. McCloskey to anyparochial charge, reserving him to preside over the diocesan institutionon which he had set his heart. In order to fit himself for the position,the young priest begged his bishop to permit him to proceed to Rome inorder to follow for two years the thorough course of theological studiesin the Gregorian University, thus profitably employing the time thatwould necessarily be required to fit the institution for the receptionof pupils.

As Bishop Du Bois saw the wisdom of the suggestion, he consented, andearly in 1835 Rev. John McCloskey reached the Eternal City, and enrolledhimself among the distinguished pupils like Grazrosi, Perrone, Palma,Finucci, who were then attending the lectures of Perrone, Manera, andtheir associate professors. One who knew Rome well, and knew the lateCardinal well, wrote: "What advantage the young American priest drewfrom them has ever since been seen in the remarkable breadth andcorrectness and lucidity of his decisions in theological matters,whether coming before him in his episcopal duties, or brought up fordiscussion in the episcopal councils which he has attended. His words,calm and well considered, have ever been listened to with attention, andgenerally decided the question. But, beyond the mere book learning, soto speak, of ecclesiastical education, he gained a knowledge of theecclesiastical world, nowhere else attainable than in Rome. Brought incontact with the students of the English College, under Dr. (afterwardsCardinal) Wiseman, of the Irish College under Dr. (afterwards Cardinal)Cullen, of the Propaganda under Monsignor (afterwards Cardinal) Count deReisach, of the Roman Seminary, and of other colleges, he came to knowmany brilliant young students of various nationalities, alike in faithand in fervent piety, yet dissimilar in the peculiar traits of theirrespective races. He formed friendship with many who have since madetheir mark in their own countries. The young American priest, sopolished and gentlemanly in his address, so modest and retiring, and yetso full of varied learning, so keen of observation, and so ready, whendrawn out, with unexpected and plain, common-sense, home thrusts, wasfully appreciated among kindred minds of the clergy of Rome, and ofother countries visiting Rome. Though avoiding society as far as hecould, and something of a recluse, he was welcome in more than one nobleRoman palace. But it was especially in the English-speaking circle ofCatholic visitors each winter to Rome,[Pg 22] that he was prized. CardinalWeld, ever an upholder of Americans, anticipated great things yet to bedone by this young priest, and loved to present him to the Cliffords,the Shrewsburys, and other noble English-speaking Catholics, as a livingrefutation of the accounts of Americans and American manners, just givento the English world by Mrs. Trollope."

Among this English-speaking colony in Rome he found abundant occasionfor the exercise of his ministry, such was the confidence inspired byhis piety and learning. Among those placed under his direction was Mrs.Connolly, an American convert, who, in time, founded in England ateaching community of high order, the Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus,which has now many houses in England and the United States.

At the expiration of the time assigned for his studious sojourn in Rome,Rev. Mr. McCloskey left the Eternal City, well fitted, indeed, to assumethe directorship of the seminary. He travelled with observant eyethrough Northern Italy, Austria, Germany and France, then crossed to theBritish Isles, visiting England and Scotland. His tour enabled him tomeet old friends and to win new ones; as well as to learn practicallythe condition of the church in all parts of Europe.

When he returned to New York in 1838 he found that Bishop Du Bois had,overcome by difficulties and trials, finally abandoned his projectedseminary; and now desired to assign him to parochial work. With thewell-trained priest to hear was to obey. Yet the position of the bishopwas one of difficulty. An uncatholic national feeling had been arousedsome years before in New York, assuming under Bishop Connolly allobsequiousness to that prelate and zeal for his honor; under Bishop DuBois its whole power was wielded against him; and as few of the leadersin the movement were practical Catholics, appeals to their religioussense fell unheeded.

The parish offered to Rev. Mr. McCloskey presented difficulties of itsown. The last pastor, his old friend and brother-collegian, Rev. CharlesC. Pise, had indiscreetly aroused a deep and bitter feeling againsthimself, and the hostile party in the congregation was led by a man oflearning and real attachment to his religion, though of littleself-control. For the Rev. Mr. McCloskey to assume the pastorship of St.Joseph's required no little courage. He was as obnoxious on some groundsas his predecessor, being like him American by birth, trained atEmmittsburg under Bishop Du Bois. In this conjuncture the Rev. JohnMcCloskey displayed what must be recognized as the striking virtue ofhis character, the highest degree of Christian prudence, and with it andthrough it, courage, firmness and self-control. He repaired to the postassigned to him by his bishop, and entered upon the discharge of hisduties. The Trustees ignored his appointment utterly, made noappropriation for his salary, took no steps to furnish his house, sothat he had not even a table to write upon. "But," as His GraceArchbishop Corrigan well says, "the young priest was equal to theemergency. He discharged his duties as sweetly, as if there never hadbeen a suspicion of dissatisfaction; he prepared his sermons ascarefully, as if the best audience New York could afford[Pg 23] were there tolisten." His parish extended up to the line of Harlem; but he complainedneither of his treatment, nor of the labor of the day and the heat; andmen ready and anxious to complain, found that they had to do with apriest who gave them not a tittle to bear before the people as agrievance to complain about. The clouds vanished so completely that thepeople forgot there had ever been any. In a few years one of those whohad received him with the greatest distrust, had grown to appreciate himso highly as to address him as a priest "whose unaffected piety as aChristian Divine, splendid talents as an effective preacher, extensiveacquirements as an elegant scholar, and dignified, yet amiable, mannersas an accomplished gentleman, have long been the admiration, theornament and the model of his devoted flock."

The project for which Bishop Du Bois had summoned his young seminarianfrom the Mount was at last carried out in 1841 by the vigorous head andhand of Bishop Hughes. The diocese of New York had its Seminary andCollege at Fordham. It was a remarkable tribute to the merit and abilityof the Rev. John McCloskey, that Bishop Hughes, though the diocese hadbeen joined by many able and learned priests, still turned to him tofill the post for which Bishop Du Bois had selected him when but aseminarian. Yet he was now a parish priest, and the tie between him andhis flock had grown so close that both feared that it might be sundered.

He undertook the organization of the Seminary and College, retaining hispastoral charge to the consolation of his flock. The result justifiedthe selection. His power of organization, his knowledge of the wants ofthe times, of the duties of teacher and pupil, were thorough. Theinstitution was soon in successful operation, and the seminarians wereedified by the piety, regularity and unalterable calmness of theSuperior, who was always with them at their morning meditation, andalways with them at exercises of devotion, his perfect order and systempreventing all confusion, foreseeing and providing for all.

After placing the new institutions on a firm basis, he resigned thepresidency to other hands, and resumed his duties at St. Joseph, to thedelight of his flock. It was, however, really because Bishop Hughesalready determined to solicit his elevation to the episcopate, that hemight enjoy his aid as coadjutor in directing the affairs of thediocese, which were becoming beyond the power of one man to discharge.In the Fifth Provincial Council, of Baltimore, held in May, 1843, BishopHughes laid his wishes before the assembled Fathers, and the appointmentof Rev. John McCloskey, as coadjutor of New York, was formally solicitedfrom the Sovereign Pontiff by the Metropolitan of Baltimore and hissuffragans. At Rome there was no hesitation in confirming the choice ofa clergyman whose merit was so well known, and on the 30th of September,Cardinal Fransoni wrote announcing that the Rev. John McCloskey had beenelected by the Holy Father for the See of Axiere, and made coadjutor tothe Bishop of New York.

The consecration took place in old St. Patrick's Cathedral on the 10thof March, 1844, and the scene was the grandest ever till then witnessedin New York, The Rt. Rev. John Hughes, Bishop of New York, assisted byBishop Fenwick, of New York, once administrator of[Pg 24] the diocese, andBishop Whelan, of Wheeling, consecrated three bishops, the Rt. Rev.Andrew Byrne, Bishop of Little Rock, the Rt. Rev. William Quarter,Bishop of Chicago, and the Rt. Rev. John McCloskey, Bishop of Axiere,and coadjutor of New York.

From the pulpit of the Cathedral, the venerable Dr. Power, addressingthe newly consecrated coadjutor, said: "One of you I have known from hisboyhood. I have seen the youthful bud of genius unfold itself; and Ihave seen it also in full expansion; and I thank God I have been sparedto behold it now blessing the house of the Lord. Rt. Rev. Dr. McCloskey!it must be gratifying to you to know, that if the choice of a coadjutorof this diocese had been given to your fellow-laborers in the vineyard,it would certainly have fallen upon you."

It was surely no ordinary merit, that won the Rev. John McCloskey suchuniversal esteem. To have been chosen for the same responsible post bymen so different in mind and feelings as Bishops Du Bois and Hughes, tobe at once the choice of Bishop Hughes and a body of priests among whomgreat divisions had existed, and great differences of nationality,education and inclination prevailed, was something wonderful andunparalleled.

His elevation to the episcopate did not withdraw Bishop McCloskey fromthe church of his affection, that dedicated to the Spouse of Mary. Herehis throne was erected, and the congregation rejoiced in the honor anddignity conferred upon him, and through him on their church. He thenbegan the discharge of the episcopal duties devolved upon him by the Rt.Rev. Bishop of the See. The earliest was the dedication of the Church ofthe Most Holy Redeemer in New York City. From that we can mark hiscourse confirming in all parts of the diocese, dedicating churches, andordaining to the priesthood, two of the six first ordained by him on thefeast of the Assumption of Our Lady in 1844, still surviving hoary withlong years of priestly labor, Rev. Sylvester Malone and Rev. GeorgeMcCloskey. But the weightier and important duties connected with theadministration are unrecorded. The most Rev. Archbishop of Baltimore inhis funeral sermon on Cardinal McCloskey said truly: "The life of theCardinal has never been written and never can be. And this is true ofevery Catholic prelate. He can never have his Boswell. The biographermay relate his public and official acts. He may recount the churches heerected, the schools he opened, the institutions of charity and religionwhich he established; the priests he ordained, the sermons he preached,the sacraments he administered, the laborious visitations he made, buthe can know nothing of the private and inner life which is 'hidden withChrist in God.' That is manifest to God's recording angel only. Thebiographer knows nothing of the bishop's secret and confidentialrelations with his clergy and people, and even with many who are aliento his faith. He is the daily depository of their cares and anxieties,of their troubles and afflictions, of their trials and temptations. Theycome to him for counsel in doubt, for spiritual and even temporalassistance. Were a bishop's real life in its outward and inward fulnesspublished, it would be more interesting than a novel."

Even with the aid of so untiring a coadjutor as Dr. McCloskey,[Pg 25] BishopHughes found the diocese too large to be administered with the care thatall portions required. When the Sixth Provincial Council convened atBaltimore, in May, 1846, which he attended with his coadjutor, he urgeda division of his diocese, the necessity of which Bishop McCloskey couldattest. New Sees were proposed at Albany and Buffalo. Pius IX., yieldingto the request of the Fathers of the Council of Baltimore, erected thedioceses of Albany and Buffalo. Bishop McCloskey was translated from theSee of Axiere to that of Albany, and the diocese committed to his carecomprised the portion of New York State north of the forty-seconddegree, and lying east of Cayuga, Tompkins and Tioga counties.

He took possession of his diocese early in the summer, making St. Mary'shis pro-cathedral, till the erection of his cathedral, of which he laidthe corner-stone soon after his arrival. A visitation of his diocesefollowed, and then began the work of developing the Catholic interestsin the portion of the State. His diocese contained forty-four churches,and about as many clergymen, with but few institutions of education orcharity. Its progress was steady, solid and effectual. He added newpriests, well chosen and trained, introduced the Fathers of the Societyof Jesus, the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, the Christian Brothers, theLadies of the Sacred Heart. His Cathedral was completed and wasrecognized as one of the greatest ornaments of the city; but allextravagance was avoided and discouraged. Churches were reared suited tothe means of the flock, and the tepid, careless and indifferent wererecalled to their Christian duties, till the diocese assumed a newspirit. None but those who lived there, and witnessed the progress, canform a conception of what Bishop McCloskey accomplished while he gavethe best period of his life to the diocese of Albany.

More than a hundred churches, and nearly a hundred priests, withschools, academies, hospitals, asylums, were the fruits of the Catholiclife aroused by his zeal.

As Bishop of Albany he took part in the Seventh Provincial Council ofBaltimore in 1849; the first Plenary Council, in 1852; and the first ofNew York, 1854. In all these his prudence and wisdom deeply impressedhis associates, as many of them have testified. In his diocese hisrelations to his clergy in his Synod, and in occasional directions,showed a gentle consideration for others, which overcame all obstacles.

On the death of Archbishop Hughes, to whom he had long since been namedsuccessor, the voice of the bishops of the Province, as well as thedesire of the clergy and people of the diocese, solicited from the HolySee the promotion of Bishop McCloskey, and the successor of St. Petersoon pronounced the definitive word. He returned to New York just as theterrible civil war came to a close; and the paralyzed country could lookto its future. Under his impulse the new Cathedral was completed anddedicated with a pomp never yet witnessed in the Western World. TheState of New York for some years had suffered from a want of churches;but amid a war draining the wealth and blood of the country, it wouldhave been rash to attempt to erect them when all value were fictitious.Now, under the impulse of the quiet and[Pg 26] retiring Archbishop, oldchurches were enlarged; new parishes were formed and endowed withchurches; schools increased in number and efficacy. While increasing thenumber of his parochial clergy both in numbers and in the thorougheducation he so highly esteemed, Archbishop McCloskey gave the religiousorders every encouragement, and introduced others. Communities ofreligious women, for various forms of charity, also found a heartysupport from him. In the administration of the diocese, and thedirection of these communities, he displayed his wonted wisdom inselecting as his Vicar General, the Rev. William Quinn, whose ability ofa remarkable order had already been tested.

Archbishop McCloskey took part in the Second Plenary Council ofBaltimore, in 1866, whose acts are such a code of doctrine anddiscipline. "Of it he was a burning and a shining light," saidArchbishop Gibbons. "He was conspicuous alike for his eloquence in thepulpit, and for his wisdom in the council chamber. I well remember thediscourse he delivered at the opening session. The clear, silvery tonesof his voice, the grace of his gestures and manner, the persuasiveeloquence and charm of his words are indelibly imprinted on my memoryand imagination. Just before ascending the pulpit, a telegram was handedto him, announcing the destruction by fire of his Cathedral. He did notbetray the slightest emotion, notwithstanding the sudden and calamitousnews. Next morning I expressed to him my surprise at his imperturbablemanner. "The damage," he replied, "is done, and I cannot undo it. Wemust calmly submit to the will of Providence.""

The decrees of the Plenary Council, with those of the Council of NewYork, were promulgated by him in a Synod held by him at New York, inSeptember, 1868.

The next year he was summoned to attend a General Council at Rome, thefirst held in the church since the Synod of Trent. The Council of theVatican had been equalled by but few in the number of bishops, by nonein the universality of the representation. Before modern science hadfacilitated modes of travel and communication, the area including thosewho attended was comparatively limited. To the Vatican Council, however,they came not from all parts of Europe only, but from Palestine, Indiaand China; from the Moslem States of Africa; the European colonies; thenegro kingdoms of the interior; America sent her bishops from Canada andthe United States; the Spanish republics, Australia and the islands ofthe Pacific even had their bishops seated beside those of the mostancient Sees. Here Archbishop McCloskey was a conspicuous figure,respected for learning, experience, the firmness with which he held theopinion he mildly but conclusively advanced. In the committee ondiscipline his wisdom excited the highest admiration of the presidingcardinal.

When the impious seizure of Rome made the sovereign Pontiff a prisonerin the Vatican, the proceedings of the council were deferred to betterdays, which the Church still prayfully awaits. Archbishop McCloskeyreturned to his diocese; but the malaria of the Campagna had affectedhis health, never rugged, and shattered some years previously[Pg 27] by arailroad accident, on a journey required by his high office. But heresumed his accustomed duties, inspiring good works, or guiding andsupporting them like the Catholic Protectory, the Catholic Union of NewYork, and its branch since developed to such wide-reaching influence,the Xavier Union.

The impression which he had produced at Rome, from his early visit as ayoung priest to his dignified course in age as a Father of the Councilof the Vatican, led to a new and singular honor, in which the wholecountry shared his honor. In the consistory held March 15, 1875, PopePius IX. created Archbishop McCloskey a Cardinal Priest of the HolyRoman Church, his title being that of Sancta Maria supra Minervam, thevery church from which Rt. Rev. Dr. Concanen was taken to preside overthe diocese of New York as its first bishop. The insignia of the highdignity soon reached the city borne by a member of the Pope's nobleguard and a Papal Ablegate. The berretta was formerly presented to himin St. Patrick's Cathedral, April 22, 1875. According to usage he soonafter visited Rome and took possession of the church from which hederived his title. He was summoned to the conclave held on the death ofPope Pius IX., but arrived only after the election of Pope Leo XIII., towhom he paid homage, receiving from his hands the Cardinal's hat, thelast ceremonial connected with his appointment.

After his return he resumed his usual duties, but they soon required theaid of a younger prelate, though all his suffragans were ever ready torelieve their venerated Metropolitan by officiating for him. He finallysolicited the appointment of the young but tried Bishop of Newark as hiscoadjutor, and Bishop Michael Augustine Corrigan was promoted to thetitular See of Petra, October 1, 1880. Gradually his health declined andfor a time he was dangerously ill; but retirement to Mount St.Vincent's, where in the castellated mansion erected by Forrest, he hadthe devoted care of the Sisters of Charity, and visits to Newport seemedto revive for a time his waning strength. His mind remained clear, andhe continued to direct the affairs of his diocese, convening aProvincial Council, the acts of which were transmitted to Rome. "TheCardinal's fidelity to duty clung to him to the end. He continued toplead for his flock at God's altar, as long as he had power to stand.Even when the effort to say Mass would so fatigue him that he could donothing else that morning, he continued, at least, on feast days, tooffer the Holy Sacrifice. He said his last Mass on the Feast of theAscension, 1884." At the Plenary Council in Baltimore, at the close ofthat year, the diocese was represented by his coadjutor.

From the time of his last Mass he was unable to read or write; unable tomove a single step without assistance. In this condition he lingered,sinking by a slow and gradual decline, but preserving his serenity andthe full possession of his mental faculties. "None of those around him,"says Archbishop Corrigan, "ever heard the first syllable of complaint.It was again his service of the Lord, such as our Lord ordained it. Tothose who sympathized with him in his helplessness, the sweet answerwould be made: 'It is God's will. Thy will, O Lord, be done on earth asit is in heaven.' Fulfilling God's will, he[Pg 28] passed away, calmly and inpeace, as the whole course of his life had been, and without a struggle;'the last words he was able to utter, being the Hail Mary.'"

The death of our first American Cardinal, October 10th, 1885, calledforth from the press, and from the clergy of other denominations, auniform expression of deep and touching respect. He had won many moralvictories without fighting battles; his victories left no rancor.Everywhere at Catholic altars Masses were offered for the repose of hissoul, and when the tidings crossed the Atlantic, the solemn services atParis and Rome attested the sense of his merit, and of the Church'sloss.

His funeral in New York was most imposing. Around the grand Cathedral,as around a fretted rock of marble, surged the waves of people, like asea. The vast interior was filled, and beneath the groined roof he hadreared, lay, in his pontifical vestments,—the hat, insignia of hishighest dignity, at his feet,—the mild and gentle and patient CardinalMcCloskey, his life's work well and nobly ended.

The solemn Mass, the deep tones of the organ, the Gregorian notes of thechoirs moved all to pray for the soul of one whose life had been givento the service of God. The Archbishop of Baltimore, the Most Rev. JamesGibbons, pronounced the funeral discourse, and then the body was laidbeside those of his predecessors in the crypt beneath.

A month later, and again the Dies Iræ resounded through that noblemonument of his love for religion. The Month's Mind, that touchingtribute which our Church pays her departed, called forth from the MostRev. Michael A. Corrigan, who knew him so well and so intimately, wordsfull of touching reminiscences.

Bishop Lynch, of Charleston, S. C., who knew him so intimately, thusdescribed him a few years ago before the hand of disease had changedhim. "In personal appearance the Cardinal is about five feet ten inchesin height, straight, and thin in person and apparently frail, though hischest is full, and the tones of his voice when preaching are clear andfar reaching. His features are regular and finely chiselled. The brow islofty, the nose thin and straight, the eyes keen, quick and penetrating;the thin lips, even in repose, seeming to preserve the memory of asmile; the whole expression of the countenance, one of serious thoughtand placid repose. Yet you feel or see indications of activity ready tomanifest itself through the brows, the eyes or the lips. In fact histemperament is decidedly nervous; and if you observe the naturalpromptness and decision of his movements, you might almost think himquick and naturally impetuous. There could be no greater mistake; or, ifhe is such by natural disposition, this is one of the points where hisseminary training has taught him to control and master himself. Theforte of his character is his unchanging equanimity. And yet there musthave been in him a wondrous amount of nervous energy to enable him tosurvive very serious injuries to his frame in early life, and to endurethe severe physical labors of an American bishop for thirty years....Piety, learning, experience, zeal—every bishop should have these as amatter of course. He has more. In address, gentle, frank and winning, heat once puts you at ease, and[Pg 29] makes you feel you are speaking to afather or a friend in whom you may unreservedly confide. Soft anddelicate in manners as a lady, none could ever presume in his presenceto say a word or do an act tinged with rudeness, still less indelicacy.Kind and patient with all who come to him, he is especially consideratewith his clergy. To them he is just in his decisions, wise in hiscounsels and exhortations, ever anxious to aid them in theirdifficulties. Tender and lenient as a mother to those who wish to doright, and to correct evil, he is inflexible when a principle is atstake, and can be stern when the offender is obdurate. Notoriety anddisplay are supremely distasteful to him. He would have his work done,and thoroughly done, and his own name or his part in it never mentioned.He studiously avoids coming before the public, save in hisecclesiastical functions, or where a sense of duty drives him to it. Heprefers to work quietly and industriously in the sphere of his duties.Here, he is unflagging, so ordering matters that work never accumulateson his hands through his own neglect."

The Pope and the Mikado.

The following is the text of the letter addressed by His Holiness to theMikado of Japan:—

To the Illustrious and Most Mighty Emperor of All Japan, LEO PP. XIII.,greeting.

August Emperor:

Though separated from each other by a vast intervening expanse of space,we are none the less fully aware here of your pre-eminent, anxious carein promoting all that is for the good of Japan. In truth, the measuresYour Imperial Majesty has taken for the increase of civilization, andespecially for the moral culture of your people, call for the praise andapproval of all who desire the welfare of nations and that interchangeof benefits which are the natural fruit of a more refined culture,—themore so that, with greater moral polish, the minds of men are morefitted to imbibe wisdom and to embrace the light of truth. For thesereasons we beg of you that you will graciously be pleased to accept thisvisible expression of our good-will with the same sincerity with whichit is tendered.

The very reason, indeed, which has moved us to despatch this letter toYour Majesty, has been our wish of publicly expressing the pleasure ofour heart. For the favors which have been vouchsafed to every missionaryand Christian, we are truly beholden to you. By their own testimony wehave been made acquainted with your grace and goodness to both priestsand laymen. Nothing truly, in your power, could be more praiseworthy asa matter of justice or more beneficent to the common weal, inasmuch asyou will find the Catholic[Pg 30] religion a powerful auxiliary in maintainingthe stability of your Empire.

For all dominion is founded on justice, and of justice there is not aprinciple which is not laid down in the precepts of Christianity. Andthus, all they who bear the name of Christian, are above allenjoined,—not through fear of punishments, but by the voice ofreligion,—to reverence the kingly sway, to obey the laws, and not toseek for ought in public affairs save that which is peaceful andupright. We most earnestly beseech you, therefore, to grant the utmostfreedom in your power to all Christians, and to deign, as heretofore, toprotect their institutions with your patronage and favor. We, on ourpart, shall suppliantly beseech God, the author of all good, that he maygrant your beneficial undertakings their wished-for outcome, and maybestow upon Your Majesty, and the whole realm of Japan, blessings andfavors increasing day by day.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the twelfth day of May, 1885, in theeighth year of Our Pontificate.

Order of the Buried Alive.

The order of the Buried Alive in Rome, the Convent of the Sepolte Vivo,is a remnant of the Middle Ages in the life of to-day. The LondonQueen's correspondent had the privilege of an entrance within, oneafter another, of the five iron doors, and talking with the MotherSuperior through the thick swathing of a woollen veil, but ordinarycommunication with the convent is carried on through the "barrel," whichfills an opening in the wall. Over the barrel is written: "Who will livecontented within these walls, let her leave at the gate every earthlycare." You knock at the barrel, which turns slowly around till it showsa section like that of an orange from which one of the quarters has beencut.

You speak to the invisible sister, who asks your will; and she answersyou in good Italian and cultivated intonation. You hear the voice quitedistinctly, but as if it was far, far away. She is really separated fromyou by a slender slice of wood, but she is absolutely invisible. Not thesmallest ray of light, nor the smallest chink is visible between you andher. Sound travels through the barrel, but sight is absolutely excluded.These nuns live on charity, keeping two Lents in the year—one fromNovember to Christmas, the other the ordinary Lent of CatholicChristendom. Living, therefore, on charity, they may eat whatever isgiven to them, saving always "flesh meat" during the fasting time.

If you take them a cake or a loaf of bread, a roll of chocolate bonbons,a basket of eggs, it is all good for them. They must be absolutelywithout food for twenty-four hours before they may ask help from theoutside world; and when they have looked starvation in the face, thenthey may ring a bell, which means: "Help us! we are famishing!"[Pg 31] Perhapsyou take them nothing eatable, but you place on the edge of the cutorange, by which you sit, some money, demanding in return their"cartolini," or little papers.

The barrel turns slowly round, then back again, and you find on theledge, where you had laid your lire, a paper of "cartolini." These arevery small, thin, light-printed slips, neatly folded in tiny packets,three to each packet, which, if you swallow in faith, will cure you ofall disease. After your talk is ended, the barrel turns around once moreand presents its face as of an immovable and impenetrable-lookingbarrier. One of the pretty traditions of Rome is, that each sister hasher day, when she throws a flower over the convent wall as a sign to herwatching friends that she is still alive. When she has been gathered tothe majority, the flower is not thrown, and the veil has fallen forever.

Harvard College and the Catholic Theory of Education.

Slowly, but with unmistakable certainty, the logic of the Catholicteaching regarding true education is forcing itself upon non-Catholicminds. Day by day some prominent Protestant comes boldly to the frontand declares his belief that education must be based upon religion. Oneof the latest accessions to this correct theory is President Eliot, ofHarvard College, who declared at a recent meeting of Bostonschoolteachers that,—

"The great problem is that of combining religions with seculareducation. This was no problem sixty or seventy years ago, forthen our people were hom*ogeneous. Now, the population isheterogeneous. Religious teaching can best be combined withsecular teaching and followed in countries of heterogeneouspopulation, like Germany, Austria, France and Belgium, wherethe government pays for the instruction, and the religiousteachers belonging to different denominations are admitted tothe public schools at fixed times. That is the only way out ofthe difficulty.... I see, growing up on every side, parochialschools—that is, Catholic schools—which take large numbers ofchildren out of the public schools of the city. That is a greatmisfortune, and the remedy is to admit religious instructors toteach these children in the public schools. This is what isdone in Europe. And all those who are strongly interested inthe successful maintenance of our public school system willurge the adoption of the method I have described for religiouseducation."

These are strong words, and coming from such a source cannot fail tohave their legitimate result. The fearlessness and sincerity ofPresident Eliot in thus stating his position on this most importantsubject merits the appreciation of every American, Catholic orProtestant.

We add in connection with the above, the remarks of the ChristianAdvocate, a Protestant paper published at San Francisco, Cal.:—

"The course which the Roman Catholic Hierarchy, in thiscountry, are taking in regard to the education of children is,from their standpoint, worthy of praise. They see that in orderto keep their children under the rule of the Church, they must[Pg 32]keep them from the public schools, where they think Protestantinfluence predominates. Therefore they are providing for themin their parochial schools and academies at an extra expensethat does credit to their zeal and devotion. Their plans arebroad, deep and far-reaching, and they are a unit in theprosecution of them. They are loyal to their convictions,making everything subservient to the interests of theirreligion. Understanding, as they do, the importance of mouldingcharacter in the formative period, they look diligently afterthe religious culture of their children. In all this they aredeserving of commendation, and Protestants may receive valuablehints from them of tenacity of grip and self-denying devotionto their faith."

An Affecting Incident at Sea.

Seldom have passengers by our great Atlantic steamers witnessed sosolemn and impressive a scene as that at which it fell to the lot of thepassengers in the outward voyage of the Inman liner, "City of Chester,"to assist. It appears that one of the passengers was a Mr. John Enright,a native of Kerry, who, having amassed a fortune in America, had gone toIreland to take out with him to his home in St. Louis three young nieceswho had recently become orphans. During the passage Mr. Enright diedfrom an affection of the heart; and the three little orphans were leftonce more without a protector. Fortunately there were amongst thepassengers the Rev. Father Tobin, of the Cathedral, St. Louis; the Rev.Father Henry, of the Church of St. Laurence O'Toole, St. Louis; and theRev. Father Clarkson, of New York. Father Henry was the Celebrant of theMass of Requiem; and Colonel Mapleson and his London Opera Company, whowere also on board, volunteered their services for the choir. Theychanted, with devotional effect, the De Profundis and the Miserere;and Madame Marie Roze sang, "Oh, rest in the Lord," from "Elijah." Thebell of the ship was then tolled; and a procession was formed, headed byCaptain Condron, of the "City of Chester." The coffin, which wasenveloped in the American flag, was borne to the side of the ship, fromwhich it was gently lowered into the sea. The passengers paid everyattention to the orphans during the remainder of the voyage, at thetermination of which they were forwarded to the residence of their lateuncle in St. Louis.

Sing, Sing for Christmas.

Sing, sing for Christmas! Welcome happy day!
For Christ is born our Saviour, to take our sins away;
Sing, sing a joyful song, loud and clear to-day,
To praise our Lord and Saviour, who in the manger lay.

Sing, sing for Christmas! Echo, earth! and cry
Of worship, honor, glory, and praise to God on high;
Sing, sing the joyful song; let it never cease;
Of glory in the highest, on earth good-will to man.

[Pg 33]

Dead Man's Island.

THE STORY OF AN IRISH COUNTRY TOWN.

T. P. O'Connor, M. P.

CHAPTER XVII.

THE DOOMED NATION.

A passion of anger and despair swept over Ireland when it was at lastannounced that Crowe had sold the pass. For some days the people were inthe same dazed and helpless condition of mind that followed the potatoblight of '46. In that terrible year one of the strange and mostuniversally observed phenomena was that the people looked, for daysafter the advent of the blight that brought the certainty of hunger anddeath, silent and motionless and apathetic. And so it was now, whenthere came a blight, less quickly, but as surely, destructive ofnational life and hope. There was a dread presentiment that this was ablow from which the nation was not destined to recover for many a longday, and though they could not reason about it, the people had theinstinctive feeling that the rule of the landlord was now fixed moretightly than ever, and that emancipation was postponed to a day beyondthat of the present generation.

The landlords appreciated the situation with the same instinctivereadiness and perception. At once the pause which had come in the workof eviction was broken, the plague raged immediately with a fiercenessthat seemed to have gained more hellish energy and more devilish crueltyfrom its temporary abatement. The roads were thick with troops of peoplerushing wildly from their homes and fleeing from their native country asfrom a land cursed alike by God and by man. Mat Blake, passing alongfrom Dublin to Ballybay, was almost driven to insanity by the sights hesaw at the different sections along the way.

Every station was besieged by vast crowds of the emigrants and theirfriends. There are few sights so touching as the sight of the parting ofIrish families at a railway station. The ties of family are closer andmore affectionate than anybody can appreciate who has not lived the lifeof an Irish home. The children grow up in a dependence on their parentsthat may well seem slavery to other peoples. The grown son is still the"boy" years after he has attained manhood's years, the daughter remainsa little girl, whom her mother has the right to chide and direct andcontrol in every action. Such ties beget helplessness as well asaffection, and the Irish peasant still regards many things as worse thandeath, which, by peoples of less ardent religious faith, are regardedmore philosophically.

When Mat looked at the simple faces of those poor girls, at thebewildered look in the countenances of the young men, and thought of[Pg 34]how ignorant and helpless these people were, he could understand thealmost insane anguish of their parents as they saw them embark on anocean so dark and tempestuous and remote as the crowded cities ofAmerica, and Mat could penetrate down into the minds of his people andsee with the lightning flash of sympathy the dread spectre that torturedthe minds, filled the eyes, and darkened the brows of the Irish parents.

Station after station, it was always the same sight. The partingrelatives were locked in each other's arms; they wept and cried aloud,and swayed in their grief.

"Cheer up, father; God is good."

"Ah, Paddie, my darlint, I'll never see ye agin."

"Oh mother, dear, don't fret."

"May God and His Blessed Mother in heaven protect my poor girl."

Then more kisses through the carriage windows.

The guards and porters frantically called upon the people to stand back;they clung on, careless of danger to life and limb; and as the black,hideous, relentless monster shot away they rushed along the line; theypassed into the fields, and waved handkerchiefs, and shouted the namesof the parting child or sister or brother; until at last the distanceswallowed up the train and its occupants, and then they returned tohomes from which forever afterwards the light had passed away.

Such were the scenes which Mat saw, and when he got to Ballybay stationthere was that look on his face which to any keen observer would haverevealed much in the Irish character and afforded the key to manystartling episodes in Irish history. It was a look at once of infiniterage and infinite despair; it spoke of wrong—hated, gigantic, at onceintolerable and insurmountable. One sees a similar impress in the facesof Irishmen in Massachusetts, though the climate of America has reducedthe large, loose frame to the thin build of the new country, and hasbleached the ruddy complexion of Ireland to a sickly white or an uglyyellow; it is the look one can detect in the faces of the men who dreamof death in the midst of slain foes and wrecked palaces; it blazes inthe eyes of Healy, as with sacrilegious hand he smites the venerablefront of the mother of Parliaments.

Mat had come to Ireland for the Easter recess; he had drawn out of thesavings bank a few pounds of the money he had placed there for thefurnishing of the house which he destined for Mary and Betty Cunningham.He longed to have a share in punishing the perjured traitor who hadbetrayed the country. The sights he had seen along the route satisfiedhim as to the temper of the people, and he entered Ballybay secure inthe hope that if the traitor had been raised by the town to theopportunity of deceiving the people, he would be cast into the dust bythe same hand.

He had not been long in the town when he found that he had whollymisconceived its spirit. The one feeling that seemed to dominate allothers, was that the acceptance by Crowe of office meant anotherelection; and another election meant another shower of gold.

In his father's house he found assembled his father and mother,[Pg 35] and TomFlaherty and Mary. They were discussing the election, of course, andthis was how they discussed it.

"I always thought Crowe was a smart fellow," said Fleming. "There's onething certain; he'll have plenty of money now, and as I have alwayssaid, 'I'm a Protestant,'" and then Mat repeated his characteristicsaying.

"Do you mean to say," said Mat, with a face fierce with rage andsurprise, "that you'd vote again for Crowe, after his treason?"

"And why shouldn't he vote for him?" asked Mat's mother, in a voicealmost as fierce as his own. "Isn't he a Government man, and doesn'tevery one know that the people who can do anything for themselves oranybody else in Ireland are Government men?"

Mat, fond as he was of his mother, felt almost as if he could havekilled her at that moment; he could not speak for a few minutes forrage. At last he almost shrieked, "If there was any decency in BallybayCrowe would never leave the town alive."

"Ah! the crachure!" said Tom Flaherty.

"Ah! the crachure! Why shouldn't he look out for himself; shure, isn'tthat what we're all trying to do? God bless us."

Mary glanced uneasily at Mat, but he refused to look at her; she seemedfor a moment spoiled in his eyes by her kinship with this polluted anddegraded creature. His father gave him a wistful glance, but saidnothing. Whenever there was a tempest between his wife and his son heremained silent.

And so this was how Ballybay regarded the great betrayal! Mat feltinclined to throw himself into the Shannon, and have done with life asquickly as he was losing hope and faith.

He took a look once more at the bare and squalid streets and gloomypeople; and then at the frowning castle and the passing regiment of theEnglish garrison; and he despaired of his country.

But he had come to help in the fight against Crowe; and after theinvoluntary tribute of this brief interval of despondency, he at onceset to work. After many disappointments he found a few men who sharedhis views of the situation, and a committee was formed to go out and askCaptain Ponsonby to stand once more; for though Mat hated the politicsof Ponsonby, he thought any stick was good enough to beat the foultraitor with. Captain Ponsonby consented, and so the contest wasstarted. The Nation newspaper sent down several of its staff; the oldTenant Right Party held meetings, asked that Ballybay should do itsduty, and save the whole country from the awful calamity of triumphanttreason. Everything was thus arranged for a struggle with Crowe thatwould test all his powers, backed though he was by the money and theinfluence of the Government.

Mat's speeches, the articles in the newspapers, and the vigorous effortsof the few honest men in the town, had at last roused Ballybay until itbegan to share some of the profound horror and indignation which theaction of Crowe had provoked throughout the country generally. There wasbut one more thing necessary, and the defeat of Crowe was certain; ifthe bishop joined in the opposition, there was no possibility of hiswinning.[Pg 36]

All Ireland waited in painful tension to see what the verdict of thebishop would be. Mat heard it before anybody else, for a young curatewho lived in the College House with the bishop, and was a fierceNationalist, gave Mat a daily bulletin; the bishop resolved to supportthe Solicitor-General.

At first nobody would believe the tale; but the next day it was putbeyond all doubt, and Mat was almost suffocated by his own wrath as hesaw the "Seraph," with his divine face, arm in arm with the perjuredruffian that had brought sorrow to so many thousands of homes.

Mat fought on, but it was no longer with any strong hope of winning. Hisface grew darker every day, and the lines became drawn about his eyes,for there was another struggle going on in his mind at this moment, aswell as the political contest in which he was engaged.

The reader may remember the monitor of the school in which Mat was apupil when the eviction of the widow Cunningham took place. The monitorwas now the teacher of the National School, and Mat and he had begun tohave many colloquies.

Michael Reed was regarded as a very sardonic and disagreeable person bymost of the people of Ballybay. His hatchet face seemed appropriate to aman who never seemed to agree with the opinion of anybody else, whosneered, it was thought, all round, who laughed when other people wept,and who derided the moments of exultant hope. He had always been amongthose who hated and distrusted Crowe, and Mat, who was intoleranthimself, rather avoided him, while he still had faith in the traitor.But the wreck of all his illusions sent him repentant to Reed, and theyhad many conversations, in which Mat found himself listening willinglyand after a while even greedily, to ideas that a short time before hewould have been himself the first to denounce as folly and madness.

The idea of Reed was that the only way to work out the freedom ofIreland was by force of arms. Mat at first was inclined to laugh at theidea; but an impressionable and vehement nature such as his was illcalculated to cope for a lengthened time with a nature precise, cold,and stubborn like that of Reed. Strength of will and tenacity of opinionmake their way against better judgment, especially if there can be nodoubt of the sincerity of the man of such a temper, and the rigid eye,the proud air, and the whole attitude of Reed spoke, and spoke truly, ofa life of absolute purity, and of a fanaticism of Spartan endurance.

There was one consequence of the acceptance of the ideas of Reed, andfrom this, with all his devotion and rage and sorrow for the pitiablecondition of his country, Mat still shrank. A revolutionary could notmarry or be engaged to marry; for what man had the right to tie to hisdark and uncertain fate the life of a woman—perhaps of children?

The defeat of Crowe would once more restore faith to the people inconstitutional resources, and would save them from the cynicism andapathy which might require a revolutionary movement to rouse them oncemore to hope and action. And thus in fighting against Crowe,[Pg 37] Mat nowfelt as if he were fighting not merely for his country, but for his owndear life.

Then if Crowe were defeated, Mat could return to his work in London, andresume his efforts in carrying out the sacred purpose of raising hisfather and mother from poverty; for of marriage he could not thinkunless he were in a position to help his father and mother more than hehad done hitherto. If he ever dared to think of marriage otherwise,there came before him the gaunt image of his mother pointing to herfaded and ragged workbox with its awful pawn-tickets and bank bills.

It was while he was in the midst of this fierce and agonizing strugglethat Mat was called hurriedly one day to the house of Mary, by the newsthat Mrs. Flaherty had been taken very ill, and was supposed to bedying.

Mat came to the house, endeared to him by so many memories and hopes,trembling, and with a cold feeling about his heart. Why was it that hestarted back with a pang when he saw Cosgrave in the house before him?Why at that moment did there rush again over his whole soul that awfulimage which swept over him before? Why in imagination did he stand atnight on a wild heath, shivering and alone?

"What brought Cosgrave here?" he asked of Mary sharply.

"Oh!" said Mary, "he came to tell us that he had been made a J. P."

"So he has attained his pitiful ambition," said Mat sharply. "It'sthrough sneaks like him that scoundrels like Crowe are able to betraythe country."

"Oh, never mind the low creature," said Mary, with a look of infinitecontempt, that Mat was surprised to find very soothing.

He went up stairs. A look at the face of Mrs. Flaherty showed him atonce that the alarm was not a false one—she was evidently dying.

There was the old look of patient affection in her tender face, andthere was another look, too, which Mat could not misunderstand. It was alook of wistful appeal, half-uttered question, of a fond but tremuloushope.

And it added to the misery of that dark hour that Mat could say nothing,and that he had to let that true and deeply-loved soul pass out of lifewith its greatest fear unsatisfied, and its brightest hope unassured.For Mat could not utter a decisive word.

Between him and the speech there stood two shadows, potent, dark, andresistless—his mother pointing to her workbox, and Reed pointing to arevolver.

Mary stood beside the bed tearless.

"Doesn't Mary bear up well?" said Mat in surprise to her blubberingfather.

"Mary doesn't cry," said her father; "she frets," and in these words Matthought the whole character of the girl was summed up.

Mrs. Flaherty died on Thursday; the polling was on the following day.Mat was still under the impression of the dark and painful scene whenthe new excitement came. He hoped against hope to the[Pg 38] last, went aboutthe town like one insane, and spoke in his passion of country even toO'Flynn, the pawn-broker, and of honor to Mat Fleming, and then waitedat the closing hour to hear the result. The result was:—

Crowe125
Ponsonby112

Mat turned pale, and almost fell, his head swam, his heart seemed for amoment to have stopped. He would not yet acknowledge it in so manywords; but the sentence still kept ringing in his ears, "Thy doom issealed, thy doom is sealed."

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE STORY OF BETTY CUNNINGHAM.

The disaster which swept over all Ireland through the final success ofthe treachery of Crowe raged soon after in Ballybay. The town had beenreduced by successive misfortunes to a condition so abject that onecalamity was sufficient to completely submerge the greater portion ofits inhabitants. Mr. Anthony Cosgrave, J. P., signalized the event bydriving out the few tenants who still remained on the properties he hadbought. He turned all his land into pasture, for this was the prosperousera of the graziers, and cattle were rapidly transformed into gold.Other landlords pursued similar courses, and within a couple of years,ten thousand people had been swept from the neighborhood around.

The calamity reached down to the very lowest stratum, and touched depthsso profound as the fortunes of the widow Cunningham and her daughterBetty.

It had now become habitual for the widow and her daughter to remain fora couple of days with barely any food. One night they were sittingopposite each other on the bare floor of the railway arch in which theyhad for several years found refuge, staring at each other with theblank, wild gaze of hunger. There was a terrible pang at the heart ofthe mother on this night of nights. Throughout all her long years ofstruggle two great thoughts still remained burning in her soul, and inspite of poverty and hunger that soul still remained afire. One wasvengeance on Cosgrave for the long train of woes through which sheherself had passed, and the other was the protection of her child.

With that profound reverence for female honor which is still one of thebest characteristics of the Irish poor, she had seen the growth of herbeautiful daughter with a love mixed with terror, and guarded her childas the tigress watches by her lair. Her own life had long since ceasedto be dear to her. She walked for hours through the streets, she pleadedfor custom, she smiled under insult, she bore rain and hail and snow, inhope of the fulfilment of this great passionate purpose—to keep herdaughter pure.[Pg 39]

The misery of the last six months had been aggravated by the dread,growing in intensity with every hour, that all this endurance would bein vain, that behind the wolf of hunger there stalked the more cruelwolf of lust, and that her daughter was doomed. On this subject not aword passed between the two women, for the delicacy of feeling whichmarks even the humblest grade of Irish life sealed their lips; but thedread was always there in the mother's heart, pursuing her as anightmare through the long watches of the darkness, and haunting herevery moment as wearily she carried her basket through the streets inthe day.

"Buy a few apples, yer honor, for God's sake," she often said to apasser-by, in a tone that might have struck one as menacing, or at leastas entirely disproportionate to the urgency of the appeal; but in everysuch prayer for pence the mother felt that she was crying for her child,and her child's soul, and her accents came from the very anguish of hermother's heart.

On this night—it was about a month after the election of Crowe—the twosat together, buried in their own sad thoughts. They were suddenlyaroused by the floor becoming inundated, and at once knew what toexpect. The Shannon periodically rose above its banks outside Ballybay,and then its waters overspread the "Big Meadows," and the railway archunderneath which the widow and her daughter had taken refuge was, aswill be remembered, close to these Meadows.

They rose and rushed from the spot. They were now absolutely homeless,without even a place on which to lay their heads. They went further onto another railway arch, and at last slept. When the mother awoke in themorning she was alone.

At this period a Ballybay landlord, afterwards destined to figurelargely in the social life of Ireland, had just come of age. ThomasMcNaghten was perhaps the handsomest Irishman of his day; tall,broad-shouldered, muscular. He had a physique as splendid as that of therace of peasants from whom his father sprang; while from the gentlerrace of his mother he derived features of exquisite delicacy and thecomplexion of a lily-like pink and white. He afterwards ran a career ofmad dissipation that made his name a by-word even among the reckless anddebauched class to which he belonged, and died a paralytic before he wasforty. But at the period of our story, he was still in the full strengthand the first flush of manhood. He had cast his eyes on BettyCunningham, and had held out to her bribes that seemed to unfold to thegirl visions of untold wealth. The innate purity of the maiden hadhitherto been proof against the direct influences of poverty andwretchedness and the advances of her tempter. But at last the combinedintensities of hunger and despair became his allies.

Three weeks after her desertion of her mother Betty Cunningham was drunkin one of the public-houses, which were frequented by the soldiersquartered in Ballybay. The fatal progress of the Irish girl who hasfallen is more rapid than in any other country. Society, always cruel toits hapless victims and its outcasts, in Ireland is fanatically andbarbarously savage. Betty was driven out from every house! People[Pg 40]shuddered as she passed. She lay under hedges, her bed was often in thesnow. To Ballybay she was as much an object of loathing and of horror asthough she were some wild beast that men might lawfully destroy.

The girl herself had no compensation for all this dread outlawry. TheTraviatas of other lands are painted for us in gilded saloons, withcostly wines in golden goblets, and noble lovers sighing for theirsmiles. But Betty, outcast, hungry, and houseless, had not one second'senjoyment of life. The faith in which she had been trained still heldits grip upon her, and neither vice nor drink nor human cruelty couldrelax its grasp. She was a sinner against Heaven's most sacred law; andafter brief life came death, and after death eternal torment. Pursued bythis ever-present spectre she drank and drank, and awoke more wretchedthan ever, and then she drank again.

She would sometimes seek refuge from her burning shame and from hertortured soul in fierce revolt. She rolled in mad delirium through thestreets, yelled the blasphemies in the shuddering ears of Ballybay,fought the police who came to arrest her, developed, in short, into araging demon. Her face became bloated, her expression horrible towitness. One day, as she passed through the streets in one of thesefrenzies, she met Mat Blake. She shivered in every limb, and a pang, asfrom the thrust of a dagger, passed through her heart. But she attemptedall the more to steel her nerves, and to harden her face. She raised hereyes and glared, but the eyes fell, and she slunk away.

And thus it was that Mat saw, for the first time since his return toBallybay, the gentle, timid, lovely girl who had once willingly stoodbetween him and death.

A few minutes afterwards, Betty's mother appeared. Her features bore thetraces of the deepest grief that had yet assailed her. All pride hadgone from that once imperious face; she was a stooped, shame-faced, oldwoman. As Mat looked at her there rushed before his memory the manymomentous hours of his life with which that face was bound up, his daysof childhood in her prosperous home, his association with her daughter,and the glad hours during the first election of Crowe, when life wasstill full of glorious hope, and she had dashed the glad vision with thefirst breath of suspicion and anticipated evil.

They looked at each other silently for a moment, and then she shook herhead, and with a look of infinite grief in her eyes, said to him—

"Ah, Master Mat, it was the hunger did it; it was the hunger did it."

By a trick of memory Mat recollected that these were the words he hadheard on that day, long ago, when Betty had rescued Mary and himselffrom the enraged bull.

One thing Mat had noticed as Betty Cunningham had passed; it was thatamid the wreck of her beauty one feature still remained as strangelywitching as ever. The soft eyes had not lost their delicacy of hue, norhad the evil passions of her soul deprived them of their gentle look.Those who mentioned her, and she was not an uncommon topic among the menof the town, still spoke of Betty's beautiful eyes.[Pg 41]

At last there came a temporary change in her fate. A branch of the MaryMagdalene Asylum was established in Ballybay for the rescue of fallenwomen, and she was one of the first to enter. But her temper, spoiled byexcesses and disappointment, fretted under the restraint. She quarrelledwith the nuns, and one night she fled. Then the revival in all itsfierce vigilance of the old spectre of eternal punishment made her moreinfuriate than ever. She drank more deeply, cursed more fiercely, wasoftener in the police-cell, and Ballybay loathed her more than ever.

One morning—it was a Christmas morning—Mat was walking with his fatherin the "Big Meadows." Snow had fallen heavily the night before; and asthey passed a bush, they saw the impress of a woman's form; it wasevident that an unhappy being had there spent her Christmas Eve.

"My God!" said Mat, "a woman has slept there."

Mat's father was the kindest and most humane being in all the world, but"Serve the wretch right!" was his comment.

Her story wound up in a tragic climax. One night she made more violentresistance than ever to the attempts of the police to arrest her, andwhen she was at last captured, she was torn and bleeding. They put herinto a cell by herself; she could be heard pacing up and down with theinfuriate step of a caged tiger. The policeman on duty afterwards toldhow he had heard her muttering to herself, and that he thought he caughtthe words, "These eyes! These eyes! They have undone me! They haveundone me!" Soon afterwards he heard a wild, unearthly shriek that frozehis blood. He rushed into the cell, and there, horrible, bleeding....But I dare not describe the sight.

Betty Cunningham was taken once more into the Mary Magdalene Asylum. Hervoice was trained, and after some years she sang in the choir. A stronghush always came over the chapel when her voice was heard. People stilltold in whispers the terrible story of the blind lay sister; and Mat,sitting in the chapel years afterwards, was carried over the wholehistory of her career and his own and that of Ballybay generally as helistened to her rich contralto singing second to the rest. He had alwaysthought that there was something wondrously pathetic, at least in sacredmusic, in the voice that sings seconds, and the impression was confirmedas he listened to the blind girl's accompaniment to the other voices;low when they were loud, sad when they were triumphant, followingpainfully their quicker steps with that ever plaintive protest and softwail—fit image of life, where our highest joys are dogged by sorrow'squick and inevitable step.

Conclusion next month.

Charity's mantle is often made of gauze.

[Pg 42]

Alone.

"Canst thou watch one hour with me?"
How long since fell these words from Thee?
Before Thy blood-wept vigil in dark Gethsemane,
How many since to Thee have bent the knee?
And yet too few, for here, O Lord! art Thou;
Deserted? No! for angels crowding to Thee bring
Sweet, holy homage to their God, their King.
While—as Thy chosen ones forgetful slumbered—
Thy people passeth on the road unnumbered,
With never a thought of Thee, O God, beside.
'Tis well, O Lord! 'tis well for human kind,
Thy love is ever wondrous, great and wide,
Thy heart with golden mercies ever glowing,
Thy reaping not always Thy people's sowing.

Desmond.

A Midnight Mass.

From the French of Abel d'Avrecourt, by Th. Xr. K.

In the height of the Reign of Terror, my grandmother, then a young girl,was living in the Faubourg Saint-Germain. There was a void around herand her mother; their friends, their relatives, the head of the familyhimself, had left France. Mansions were left desolate or else wereinvaded by new owners. They themselves had abandoned their richdwellings for a plain lodging-house, where they lived waiting for bettertimes, carefully hiding their names, which might have compromised themin those days. The churches, diverted from their purpose, were used asshops or manufactories. All outward practice of religion had ceased.

Nevertheless back of a sabot-maker's shop in the Rue Saint-Dominique, anold priest who had taken up his father's humble trade, used to gathersome of the faithful together for prayer; but precaution had to beobserved, for the hunt was close, and the humble temple was exactly nextdoor to the dwelling of one of the members of the revolutionarygovernment, who was an implacable enemy of religion.

It was then a cold December night; midnight Mass was being celebrated inhonor of the festival of Christmas. The shop was carefully closed, whilethe incense was smoking in the little room back of it. A huge chest ofdrawers on which a clean, white cloth had been spread, served as altar.The priestly ornaments had been taken from their hiding-place, and thelittle assembly, composed of women and a few men, was in piousrecollection, when a knock at the door, like that of the faithful,attracted attention.[Pg 43]

One of the worshippers opened the door; a man hesitatingly entered. Theface was one to which all were unaccustomed in that place. To some,alas! it was a face too well known; it was that of the man who had inthe public councils shown himself so bitter against gatherings of thefaithful, and whose presence, for that reason, was more than ever to bedreaded at such a moment.

Nevertheless the majesty of the sacrifice was not disturbed, but fearhad seized on all the attendants; did not each of them have reason tofear for himself, for his family, and for the good old pastor, in evengreater danger than his flock?

With severe, but calm, cold air, the member of the convention remainedstanding until the end of Mass and communion, and the farther theceremony progressed, the more agitated were all hearts in theexpectation of an event which could not but too well be foreseen.

When all was over, in fact, when the lights were hardly extinguished,the congregation cautiously slipped out one by one; then the strangerapproached the priest who had recognized him, but who remained stoicallycalm. "Citizen priest," he said, "I have something to say to thee."

"Speak, my brother; how can I be of service to you?"

"It's a favor I must ask of thee, and I feel how ridiculous I am. Thered is coming up into my face and I daren't say any more."

"My bearing and my ministry nevertheless are not of the kind to disturbyou, and if any feeling of piety leads you to me—"

"Eh? That's exactly what it isn't. I don't know anything about religion;I don't want to know anything about it; I belong to those who havehelped to destroy yours; but, for my misfortune, I have a daughter—"

"I don't see any misfortune in that," the priest interrupted.

"Wait, citizen, thou shalt see. We people, men of principles, we are thevictims of our children; inflexible towards all in the maintenance ofthe ideas which we have formed for ourselves, we hesitate and we becamechildren before the prayers and the tears of our children. I have then adaughter whom I have reared to be an honest woman and a true citizeness.I thought I had formed her to my image, and here I was grossly deceived.

"A solemn moment is approaching for her. With the new year, she marriesa good young fellow, whom I myself selected for her husband. Everythingwas going right; the two children loved each other,—at least I thoughtso,—and everything was ready for the ceremony at the commune, when,this evening, my daughter threw herself at my feet, begging me topostpone her marriage.

"Surprised at first, I lifted her to her feet.

"'What! you don't love your intended?' I asked her.

"'Yes, father,' she replied, 'but I don't want to get married yet.'

"Pressed with questions on this strange caprice, she finally confessedher girlish idea. She wanted to wait, hoping that a day would come whenshe could get married, and have her union blessed in the church. Myfirst burst of anger having passed, I cannot tell you all the finereasons she gave me to obtain from me a thing so contrary to[Pg 44] my rule ofconduct. The marriage of her dead mother had been performed in thechurch; her memory required that pious action; she would not thinkherself married if it was not at the foot of the altar; she would preferto remain single the rest of her days.

"She said so much, mingling her entreaties and tears with it all, thatshe vanquished me. She even showed me the retreat which a few days ago Iwould not have discovered with impunity to you all. I have come to seekthee out, and now I ask thee: Thou hast before thee thy persecutor: wiltthou bless according to thy rite, the marriage of his daughter?"

The worthy priest replied:—

"My ministry knows neither rancor nor exclusion; I am glad, besides, forwhat you ask of me; only one thing grieves me, and that is that thefather should be hostile to his daughter's design."

"Thou mistakest: I understand all sentiments. That of a girl who wantsto be married as her mother was, seems to me to be deserving of respect,and just now, I saw, there is something touching which I cannot explainin your ceremonies, and it has made me better understand her thought."

A few days later the same back shop contained a few intimate andconciliating friends who were attending a wedding. We need not say thatfrom that day, whether through change of principles or throughgratitude, the member of the revolutionary government was secretly theprotector of the little church which could live on in peace, unknown toits persecutors.

The Hero of Lepanto.

Part II.

"Every nation," it has been said, "makes most account of its own, andcares little for the heroes of other nations. Don John of Austria, asdefender of Christendom, was the hero of all nations." He was the heroof "the battle of Lepanto which," as Alison remarks, "arrested foreverthe danger of Mahometan invasion in the south of Europe." As De Bonaldadds, it was from that battle, that the decline of the Turkish powerdates. "It cost the Turks more than the mere loss of ships and of men;they lost that moral force which is the mainstay of conquering nations."

It is not necessary in this sketch of the life of Don John, to enterinto any details about the tedious negotiations which preceded thecoalition of the naval forces of Spain, Venice, and the Pope. Suffice itto say, that repulsed from Malta by the heroism of the Knights of St.John, the Turks next turned their naval armaments against Cyprus, thenheld by the Venetians. Menaced in one of her most valuable possessions,the Republic of Venice, too long the half-hearted foe of the[Pg 45] Turks,turned in her distress, for help to the Vatican and to the Escorial. St.Pius V. sat in the See of Peter. He turned no deaf ear to an appeal thatseemed likely to bring about what the Roman Pontiffs had long desired—anew crusade against the Turks. Philip the Second, ever wary, everdilatory, more able than the Pope to assist Venice, was less ready to doso. Spain would willingly have done what she could to destroy theTurkish power, but her monarch was not sorry to humble Venice, even tothe profit of the infidel. So diplomatic delays and underhand intriguesdelayed the relief of Cyprus, and the standard of the Sultan soon washoisted over the walls of Famagusta—to remain there until replaced inour times—thanks to the wisdom of a great statesman—by the "meteorflag of England."

The terror caused by the fall of Cyprus, brought about after manynegotiations, a league between the Republic, the Papacy, and the Spanishmonarchy. A mighty naval armament was to be gathered together, and itscommander was to be Don John of Austria. His success in subduing theMoriscoes naturally designated him, in spite of his extreme youth, forthis high command. His operations, indeed, had been so far chiefly onland, but in the sixteenth century, a man might one day command asquadron of cavalry and on the next, a squadron of galleys. General andadmiral were convertible terms. There was, indeed, some division oflabor. Sailors navigated and soldiers fought the ship. And, as there ismore resemblance between the row-galleys of Don John's epoch and thesteam driven vessels of our times than there is between these and theships which Nelson and Collingwood led to victory, perhaps we shallreturn to the old state of things and again send our soldiers to sea!

To return, however, to our hero, who has meanwhile subdued the Moriscoesand returned to Madrid before setting out to take command of the greatfleet at Messina. One, however, there was who did not return with thePrince to Madrid, one who was no longer to be his "guide, philosopher,and friend." The faithful Quijada had been struck by a musket-ball in afight at Seron, in which Don John himself, in rallying his troops, had anarrow escape. After a week of suffering, the brave knight expired inthe arms of his foster-son, February 24, 1570. "We may piously trust,"says the chronicler,[A] "that the soul of Don Luis rose up to heavenwith the sweet incense which burned on the altars of St. Jerome atCaniles; for he spent his life, and finally lost it, in fighting like avaliant soldier of the faith."

Before relating the episodes of the great victory of Lepanto, it willnot be inopportune to glance at one of the great evils, that of slavery,which the Turkish power entailed on so many thousands of Christians.Nowadays, thousands of travellers pass freely, to and fro, from theStraits of Gibraltar to the Suez Canal, and from one part of theMediterranean to another. Our markets are supplied with fruits andvegetables from Algiers. Our Sovereign has no fears, except as tosanitary arrangements, when she sojourns on the northern shores of theMediterranean. A cruise in an unarmed yacht on its waters is the[Pg 46]pleasantest of pastimes. It is, therefore, hard for us to conceive whatthree centuries, nay, even three generations since, were the fears ofthose who dwelt along the coast of Southern France, of Spain, and ofItaly, or, who, as pilgrims, merchants, or sailors navigated the bluewaters of the inland sea. Every year, even after the battle of Lepanto,and still more before it, the corsairs of the northern coasts of Africascoured the Mediterranean and carried into captivity hundreds ofChristians, of all ages, nations, and of both sexes, from vessels theyencountered or from villages along the shores of France, Italy, orSpain. Hence it is, that to this day, those shores are studded with theruins of castles and forts, erected as defences against those corsairs.So great was, however, their boldness that even as late as theseventeenth century, Algerian pirates ventured as far as "the chops ofthe Channel."

When we read the annals of those religious orders devoted to theredemption of captives, we can more fully realize the terrible extent towhich the Christian slave trade was carried by the infidels. AsEnglishmen, we do well to cherish the memory of Wilberforce. AsCatholics we should not forget the religious men who risked all,slavery, disease, and death, to rescue Christians from the chains ofslavery. Let us recall to mind a few facts about them. One single houseof the Trinitarians, that of Toledo, during the first four centuries ofits existence, ransomed one hundred and twenty-four thousand Christianslaves. The Order of Mercy, during a similar period, procured freedomfor nearly five hundred thousand slaves. As to the number of slaves incaptivity at one time, it may be mentioned that Charles the Fifthreleased thirty thousand by his expedition against Tunis, and about halfas many were set free by the battle of Lepanto. It was estimated that inthe Regency of Algiers, there was an average of thirty thousand slavesdetained there. As late as 1767, in Algiers itself, there were twothousand Christians in chains. Of such slaves many were women, many mereboys and girls. And as late as 1816, Lord Exmouth, after the bombardmentof Algiers, set many Christian slaves free. It is, as we said, hard torealize that in times almost within the memory of living men, Christianstoiled in chains for the infidel, in the way some may have seen depictedby pictures in the Louvre. Similar pictures are kept in the old churchof St. Giles, at Bruges, where a confraternity existed for theredemption of captives. This association is still represented in theparochial processions, by a group of children. Some are dressed aswhite-robed Trinitarians, leading those they have redeemed from slavery.Others are gorgeously attired as Turkish slave owners; others representTurkish guards, leading Christian slaves, coarsely garbed and bound withchains. Happily Lepanto made such sights as these the processions ofBruges commemorate, of less frequent occurrence, until at length theyhave been relegated to pageantry, and the once powerful Turk is simplysuffered to linger on European soil, because the jealousies of Christiannations will not allow of his expulsion.

Salamis, Actium, Lepanto and Trafalgar are the four greatest navalbattles of history and of these Lepanto was perhaps the greatest.Salamis turned back the invasion of the East; Actium created the[Pg 47] Romanempire; Trafalgar was the first heavy blow dealt against a despotismthat threatened to strangle Europe. Lepanto, however, saved Europe froma worse fate—the domination of the Turk. The name of this great victoryis derived from the picturesque town, with its mediæval defences stillleft, of Naupaktos which the modern Greek designates as Epokte, and theItalian as Lepanto. The engagement, however, was in reality fought atthe entrance of the Gulf of Patras, ten leagues westward from the town.

The facts of the fight of the seventh of October—a Sunday—of the year1571, are so well-known, that we need merely recall to the memory of ourreaders the leading features of the contest. Spain, Venice, Genoa,Malta, and the Papal States were represented there, but "the meteor flagof England" was not unfurled in sight of the Turkish, nor were thefleurs-de-lys to be seen on the standards that gaily floated from themast-heads of the great Christian armada. England, alas! was in theclutches of a wretched woman, and France was on the eve of a St.Bartholomew's Massacre, and for all that France and England cared, atthat time, Europe might have become Mahommedan.

Don John led the centre of the long line—three miles in length—ofgalleys, while on his right, Doria the great Genoese admiral, from whosemasts waved the cross of St. George; and on the left, the braveBarbarigo, the Venetian, his flank protected by the coast commanded.Against the wind, the sun shooting its bright rays against the ships,the Turkish fleet, in half-moon formation, two hundred and fifty greatgalleys and many smaller craft, carrying one hundred and twenty thousandmen, slowly advanced "in battle's magnificently stern array." The braveAli Pacha led the van.

As the hostile fleets met, the two admirals exchanged shots. At noon,the Christians, among whom was one of the greatest soldiers and one ofthe ablest authors of that age—Farnese and Cervantes—knelt to receiveabsolution from their chaplains, and then rose up to fight. In many aquiet village away in the Appenines, or in the Sierras of more distantSpain, the Angelus was ringing, and many a heartfelt prayer was aidingthe Christian cause, then a wild cry arose from the Moslem fleet and"from mouth to mouth" of the cannon the "volley'd thunder flew." Thecombat deepened and became hand to hand. The two admirals ships grappledtogether in a deadly struggle. Don John, foremost in the fray, wasslightly wounded. At a third attempt, Ali Pacha's galley was boarded,captured, himself slain, and the Standard of the Cross replaced theCrescent. Victory! Victory! was the cry from one Christian ship toanother. In less than four hours, the Turkish ships were scattered,sunk, or burning, until darkness and storm drove Don John to seekshelter in port, and hid the wreckage with which man had strewn the sea.The Christian loss was eight thousand, the Turkish four or five timesgreater. Don John hastened to console and comfort his wounded. Did henot, perchance, visit, on his bed of suffering, the immortal Cervantes?After the wounded, he turned to his prisoners, whom he treated with agenerosity to which the sixteenth century was little accustomed.

One there was, let us not forget it, who not bodily present, had a[Pg 48]lion's share in the victory. A second Moses, with uplifted hands, St.Pius V., had prayed God and Our Lady, to aid Don John's arms. "The nightbefore the battle, and the day itself, aged as he was, and broken withdisease, the Saint had passed in the Vatican in fasting and prayer. Allthrough the Holy City the monasteries and the colleges were in prayertoo. As the evening advanced, the Pontifical treasurer asked an audienceof the Sovereign Pontiff on an important matter. Pius was in hisbedroom, and began to converse with him; when suddenly he stopped theconversation, left him, threw open the window, and gazed up into heaven.Then closing it again, he looked gravely at his official, and said,"This is no time for business; go, return thanks to the Lord God. Inthis very hour our fleet has engaged the Turkish, and is victorious." Asthe treasurer went out, he saw him fall on his knees before the altar inthankfulness and joy."

The great writer, from whom we have taken the above account of St. Piusthe Fifth's supernatural knowledge of the victory, remarks "that thevictories gained over the Turks since are but the complements and thereverberations of the overthrow at Lepanto."

Here we may take leave of the hero of Lepanto, leaving him in the midstof his glory, receiving the thanks of Christendom, from the lips of aSaint—its Supreme Pontiff. We need not follow Don John of Austria onhis expedition against Tunis—a barren conquest his too imaginative minddreamed of converting into a great African empire. Nor need we followhim when he goes, disguised as a Moorish page, accompanied by a singlecavalier, to undertake the bootless task of pacifying the revoltedNetherlands. The incidents and intrigues of this task rather belong tothe history of the Low Countries than to the story of our hero. In themidst of them, worn out by too ardent a spirit, or stricken by anepidemic, Don John expired, in his camp near Namur, at the early age ofthirty-two, on October 1, 1578. The task of saving a part of therevolted provinces to the Spanish crown, he left to the strong arm andgenius of his cousin Alexander Farnese.

Don John's desire was to be buried beside his father in Spain. His body,says Strada, was dismembered and secretly carried across France, onwardsto Madrid, where it was, as it were, reconstructed and decked with armorto be shown to Philip, who might well weep at such ghastly display. Theheart of the hero is kept, to this day, behind the high altar of theCathedral of Namur.

Generous, high-spirited, courageous, he was a true knight-errant, the"last Crusader whom the annals of chivalry were to know; the man who hadhumbled the crescent as it had not been humbled since the days of theTancreds, the Baldwins, the Plantagenets." Endowed with a brilliantimagination, he dreamed of founding an African empire, and it faded awayas the mirage of some oasis amid the deserts of the dark continent. Withhis sword, he thought to free, some day, Mary Queen of Scots, from herprison, and to place her on the throne held by Elizabeth. But the objectof his ravings died on the scaffold, while he himself passed away,leaving behind him little more for history to record than that he wasthe brilliant young soldier—the Hero of Lepanto.

W. C. R. in Catholic Progress.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] Hita, "Guerras de Granada," quoted by Prescott, "Philip"II., III., 133.

[Pg 49]

The Church and Progress.

One of the favorite mottoes of revolutionists consists in the formula,"The Catholic Church is opposed to the progress of the age;" and thegeneral tone of the day's literature, apt in adopting popular cries,criticises the Church as the arch-opponent of every effort of the humanintellect. The foundation of this charge may be broadly rested on twocounts, radically differing in their nature, and which I may be allowedto state thus: First, there is a large class nowadays, and this genus isalways especially rampant and noisy, that uses the current shibboleths,"Civilization," "Liberty," "Equality," "Fraternity," etc., either withsinister designs beneath them, or, if dupes,—and it amounts to the samein the long run,—then without at all knowing what those words mean.With that large vision that usually characterizes her in matters evennot of faith, and which makes her hated by political quacks and madsciolists, the Church detects the real objects and aims of theseinnovators, and is not afraid of facing obloquy by condemning them inspite of their false banners. For this attitude we have no excuse tooffer; we glory in it, and regard it as a sign of that innate divineenergy and life imparted to her by the source of all life and power. Thesecond count on which this charge is based may be found in the utteranceof private Catholics, or in that of prelates and bodies, in the latterof whom is lodged a power that extorts obedience, it is true, and oughtalways to be treated with respect, but which can claim to act in noinfallible manner, and which, in pronouncing on matters outside thedomain of faith, must rest upon the suggestions of reason and externalevidence alone. For instance, Catholics are often confronted withextracts from this or that author, or the pronouncements of this or thatprovincial council, and asked to say whether, after that, the Church maypretend not to be opposed to the natural aspirations of man? Theseobjectors do not, or will not, see that the Church, by enlarging thedomain of her teaching to cover all things with the mantle ofinfallibility, would most effectually crush the action of the humanintellect, which was meant for use, not rust, which must be allowedsomething to act upon, and which in independent action is bound to rushinto a variety of differences according to the bent of the individualmind. However, to answer thus merely opens up a multitude of questions,and launches one into a sea of chaos, across which he will have to sailwithout chart or compass. Accordingly, I usually answer that thesevarious utterances of individuals and provincial bodies are notinfallible; that the only utterance absolutely binding on the conscienceof the Catholic is that of a general council with the Pope at its head,or that of the Pope speaking ex cathedra; and that all the other actsof men or bodies, high or low, are subject in their degrees to humaninfirmity, though we are to receive them with respect and judiciousobedience, and that at most they are but temporary in time and limitedin space.

No idea could be more extravagant or more unjust than that usuallyentertained by Protestants on our doctrine of the Pope's infallibility.[Pg 50]

They imagine that a Catholic dares not utter a word upon any subjectuntil the Pope has spoken. Or, if they advance beyond this, that hedares not say anything about religion except what comes direct fromRome. Or, if they can stretch their imagination to realize that the Popespeaks only after discussion, that we must look to have our every wordsnatched at, and a damper put upon us, before we have well begun. Thislast is the central objection of intelligent Protestants, who know wellthat it will never do to fly in the face of facts like their moreignorant neighbors. They have taken the trouble to examine thedefinition of the dogma; and it cannot be denied that to their minds itdoes bear this sense. Any one familiar with the minute despotism ofthose thousand little Protestant Popes, the reverend offspring of the"Reformation," would see at once what a charter such authority would putin the hands of a set of Chadbands only too eager to use it. EnlightenedProtestants have begun to feel the burden of this one idea,dead-dragging officialism, and to kick against it. They are probablyreligious men, by which I mean men with devout minds, who earnestly feelthe need of belief. They become inquirers, run through the sects nearestat hand, and finally come before the Church and gaze upon her. Writtenon her front they see "Infallibility." Here lies their stumbling-block.They begin to question. Arguments are exhausted on each side, and ifthey be deeply imbued with the knowledge that there is a God, with theconsciousness thence following of their fallen nature, and with anardent hope to re-unite themselves to God, they will admit, perhaps, thetruth of the dogma, viewed in the abstract. But they will say, how willit work in practical affairs? Judging by their former experience, theywill picture the Pope as a thousand Protestant preachers rolled intoone, and invested with an authority undreamed of before, and using thatauthority to tyrannize over the least thoughts of men. What room, theywill exclaim, will men have to advance in the arts and science, not tospeak of development of doctrine, if this incubus is to rest upon them,and weigh them down, and terrify them into silence and inaction?

The best answer to this is doubtless an enlarged view of CatholicChristendom, from the earliest times down, for in that period the Popedid possess the prerogative of infallibility, though it has onlyrecently been defined as a dogma. Here it must be recollected that I amnot arguing; it would be mere presumption in me to attempt a scientificexposition altogether out of my power. Suffice it to say, thattheologians have exhausted the inward reasonings upon it, and though Iam not able to set them forth, I am at least convinced by them. Stillthe concrete world remains, and things are to be seen in them fromhistorical and exterior aspects. It is this last which strikes theimagination most, and to all men a ready test. Minds have various waysof approaching the truth; and right reason has a way of arguing andapprehending simply impossible to men in bulk and to myself. For which Ihave thought it not unuseful to draw out my way of viewing thehistorical aspects of the Church in relation to the progress and freedomof man; and perhaps many will look at the subject from a similarstandpoint.[Pg 51]

Why I believe in God I cannot express in words. Only I know there is aninward monitor constantly reminding me of that fact, vividly impressingit on my imagination, and punishing me with the lash of remorse when Ido wrong. I have never doubted when the matter was brought home to mymind. Still, there are periods when this intense conviction has beenclean wiped out of me; else, how could I have sinned, as I know I havedone, and feel this keen remorse? I do not see how men can sin with thefull consciousness that a God of truth, purity, and justice is lookingupon them with terrible eyes. This is the reason for my faith;conscience is the charter of my belief. Far be it from me to deny thearguments drawn by great intellects from the outward course of events,and which appeal, perhaps, to most minds, as evidence of a Creator andSustainer of the universe. I can only say they do not touch me, norcause the revivified life to relieve the winter of my desolation, andthe leaves and buds of the new spring to bloom within me. For when Ilook forth into the world, all things—even my own wretched life—seemsimply to give the lie to the great truth which possesses and fills mybeing. Consider the world in its length and breadth, its contradictoryhistory, its blind evolution, the greatness and littleness of man, hisrandom acquirements, aimless achievements, ruthless causes, the triumphof evil, the defeat of good, the depth and intensity and prevalence ofsin, the all-degrading idolatries, the all-defiling corruptions, themonstrous superstitions, the dreary irreligion—is not the whole apicture dreadful to look upon, capricious as chance, rigid as fate, paleas malady, dark as doom? How shall we face this fact, witnessed to byinnumerable men in all ages and times, as the natural lot of their kind?Much more so when suffering falls upon us, as it does inevitably on all,and forces upon us an attempt to solve the riddle of our chaoticexistence?

There is only one way out of the difficulty. If there is a God, thesource of all truth and goodness, how else can we account for thisdesperate condition of his highest creation, except we admit man'sfallen condition? It is thus that the doctrine of original sin is asclear to me as is the existence of God.

But, now, supposing that God intended to interfere with this state ofthings, and to draw his prodigal children to Him again, would it not beexpected that He would do so in a powerful, original, manifest, andcontinuous new creation set amid His old? So intensely is this felt,that atheists have drawn an argument from it against the Creator, andtheir feeling is expressed by Paine, when he says, that if there be arevelation from God, it ought to be written on the sun. So it should; soit is. So was it gloriously shining forth once, in a city set upon ahill, full of noon-day splendor, and visible to the eyes of all. Stillis it there, discernible to the eye of faith; but clouds obscure the sunon occasions, and the miserable doings of the sixteenth century have hidits light to uncounted millions.

And, now, where shall I find that shining light, that overcoming power,which my reason tells me to expect? I quote the words of one who soughtfor many years and at last found:—

"This power, viewed in its fulness, is as tremendous as the giant[Pg 52] evilwhich has called it forth. It claims, when brought into exercise in thelegitimate manner, for otherwise, of course, it is but dormant, to havefor itself a sure guidance into the very meaning of every portion of theDivine Message in detail, which was committed by our Lord to HisApostles. It claims to know its own limits, and to decide what it candetermine absolutely and what it cannot. It claims, moreover, to have ahold upon statements not directly religious, so far as this, todetermine whether they indirectly relate to religion, and, according toits own definitive judgment, to pronounce whether or not, in aparticular case, they are consistent with revealed truth. It claims todecide magisterially, whether infallibly or not, that such and suchstatements are or are not prejudicial to the Apostolical depositum offaith, in their spirit or in their consequences, and to allow them, orcondemn and forbid them accordingly. It claims to impose silence at willon any matters, or controversies, of doctrine, which on its own ipsedixit it pronounces to be dangerous, or inexpedient, or inopportune. Itclaims that whatever may be the judgment of Catholics upon such acts,these acts should be received by them with those outward marks ofreverence, submission, and loyalty, which Englishmen, for instance, payto the presence of their sovereign, without public criticism upon them,as being in their matter inexpedient, or in their manner violent orharsh. And lastly, it claims to have the right of inflicting spiritualpunishment, of cutting off from the ordinary channels of divine life,and of simply excommunicating those who refuse to submit themselves toits formal declarations. Such is the infallibility lodged in theCatholic Church, viewed in the concrete, as clothed and surrounded bythe appendages of its high sovereignty; it is, to repeat what I saidabove, a supereminent prodigious power sent upon earth to encounter andmaster a giant evil."[B]

Such is the weapon placed by divine power in the hands of the Church forher conflict with the world. And this being so, the inquiringProtestant, after realizing its tremendous nature and scope, will drawback perplexed, imagining that a weight like it would crush the humanintellect. He does this only because he loses sight for the moment ofthe terrible power of the earth giant. The human intellect is no baby,weakening under every stroke; it is a tough, wild, elastic energy,struggling up in every direction, and is never more itself than whensuffering beneath the blows of heaven. Moreover, its natural tendency isto explain away every dogma of religious truth, from the lowest to thehighest. In that old pagan world this natural process is to be seen.Everywhere that human genius opened up a way for itself, and had acareer, the last remnants of primeval truth were well-nigh banished.Look, too, at the educated intellect of the non-Catholic world to-day.Genius, talent, eloquence, and art, what are they in England, Germanyand France, if we may not describe them as simply godless? Why is this?

Now turn your gaze on the Middle Ages, and observe the difference. It isscarcely necessary to say that in those times the Church waspre-eminent,[Pg 53] not only having the spiritual power, but often also thesecular. If she had wished it, she could have crushed out every form ofinquiry, and firmly established herself as the one and only source ofall truth. But she did not do it. Never since the world began were suchdaring inquiries set on foot, such subtile propositions offered, such avast and varied display of the human intellect in all the departments oftheology. The office she claimed was that of arbiter; and surely nothingwas more reasonable. A man would work out some original view ordeduction; he hoped it was true, but could not be certain; he would putit forth; it would be taken up by an opponent, come before sometheological authority of minor note, pass on to some university, beadopted by it and opposed by some other; higher authorities would beappealed to, and at last the subject would appear before the Holy See.Then, perhaps, no decision would be made, or a dubious one, or minordetails would be rectified, and so the whole matter sent back for a newdiscussion. Years and years would pass before anything like a finaldecision would be reached; and then, when every defect had been rubbedoff, and every minute bearing of the matter evolved, the Church wouldeither reject it, or adopt it, and stamp it with the seal of dogma. Isay this is an epitome of doctrinal development in the Catholic Church.If there is any one thing more manifest in her ecclesiastical historythan others, it is her extreme slowness and caution in finalpronouncement, and the general wise treatment with which she hasfostered the growth of mental development, so excellent in itself, soerratic in its courses, and so needful of her strong guiding hand.

Indeed, it has been used as a reproach against her that Rome hasoriginated nothing. It is true. It was not her function. She wasinstituted as the guardian of the Apostolical depositum of faith, overwhich, of course, her control was supreme; and her jurisdiction was toextend over all other subjects, because they necessarily touched this.But without citing other names, St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinasstand forth as the formers of the western intellect. Men saintly incharacter they were, but they had no special relations to the centralSee, and were only fallible mortals like the rest of their fellows; yet,as I say, they are to be counted the very originators of modernChristian thought. Rome did nothing but stamp their teachings with theseal of her approval. So was it throughout. Her work has been to checkand balance the erratic courses of the human mind, allowing it free playwithin certain limits, but firmly preventing its suicidal excesses. Howtenderly has she dealt with schismatics; how forbearing has been herconduct in regard even to the worst heretics; patiently hearing all theyhad to say, allowing the force of their plea where it was possible, andonly casting them out when they proved incorrigible.

Most Protestants suppose that whereas there are two religious principlesat work in Christianity, private judgment, and authority, they have allthe private judgment, while we are weighed down by an unmitigatedauthority. Nothing could be more false. This aspect of Christianity iscomplete without them; they represent simply a negation, and no positiveforce at all. Show me the doctrine that Protestantism has originated,and it will then deserve to be treated[Pg 54] in a philosophical manner. Ithas had no innate life, nothing to develop from, and has simply withereddown from the first, until now the advance guard of it has reached theshadowy ground of natural religion, and Mr. James Antony Froude, itsspecial champion in its past acts, can write that it is dead. On thecontrary, when I view the external aspect of Catholicism as a whole, Ibehold within it the active forces of life at work from the first. Thehuman intellect is no passive instrument, merely being filled by thereception of faith, but a living organism, feeling a void in it forfaith when it has it not, and eagerly receiving and digesting it when itcomes. Forthwith it begins a process of development, explaining,proving, modifying, enlarging, in all the various ways that suit themultiplicity of man's nature. This process is observable in all timesand places, as the inevitable outcome of civilization. Barbarous nationsdo not reason, but receive their religion as an outer cloak; as theystagnate in all things else, so also in their creeds. Witness the Turks.Intellectually, morally, religiously, they are the same as they were sixhundred years ago; and unless overthrown from the outside, they willprobably so remain to the end of time. No heresy has arisen amongstthem; no progress in civilization is to be marked; no change even indecline; for power is relative, and the Moslem empire is weak now onlyin comparison with the vigorous young empires of the West. But theaction of civilization is different. Under its influence States are inconstant movement, changing from day to day. The change may be good inthis detail, and bad in that; it may on the whole be for the good, or itmay on the whole be for evil. But what I say is the distinct mark ofcivilization, as contrasted with barbarism, is emphatically and simplychange; change, in the natural order, is its law. For the intellect isalive and vigorous, seizing on everything within its scope, shaping itby its individual bent, and, hemmed as it is by walls of sense,naturally rushing into error on every side. These are effects of privatejudgment, and they are not less to be seen in the whole Catholic world,from its beginning until, to-day, than anywhere else; but Catholics havehad a safeguard against the rebellious and suicidal excesses of fallenreason, and this safeguard is the infallibility of the Church.

The meaning and scope of that infallibility has been given in wordsfitter than mine. Viewing the nature of things on the whole, and thentaking it for granted that God has made a revelation, and intended it tobe set up and maintained alongside of and within a civilization anxiousto get rid of it, what more reasonable to be expected than that aninfallible abiding authority should be His human instrument. It is athing we should be led to expect if it did not exist; as is fully provedby Paine's saying about its being written on the sun. How convincingly,then, is the truth forced home on us, when we do learn that there is aninstitution that exactly fulfils our foregone conclusion!

So far as theory goes, the infallibility of the Church can be a burdento none; so far as actual facts go, it has not demonstrably, to myknowledge, acted as a damper on intellectual effort, but merely as therestrainer of its excesses.[Pg 55]

I shall be quite candid in giving my views on this inexhaustiblesubject, merely letting them stand for what they are worth, and knowingfull well that there are depths in it, as in all things else, not to besounded by me. And I shall now go on to state what are the realdifficulties and burdens to me, as to many other Catholics perhaps, inthis doctrine of infallibility; always premising that ten thousanddifficulties do not make one doubt. And here some may be inclined to saythat, as touching the papal headship of it, the evil deeds of many Popesand their apparently immoral lives, do inevitably tend to throwdiscredit on it as being lodged in them. But let all that can be said beadmitted; what then? Why, I answer, David was a man after God's ownheart, and stood nearer to Him as being inspired than any Pope as beinginfallible; yet one of God's Prophets could say to him, "Thou art theman!" The lesson of which is not to judge men's inner lives entirely byoutward facts, as the young and inexperienced are too apt to do. OurBlessed Lord foretold scandals to come in the very sanctuary of Hisdwelling, and we know the doom pronounced upon those by whom they come.And if we view the action of these individuals in relation to theApostolical depositum, we can actually draw thence an argument awfulas it is startling. These Popes, so frail as men, were yet wise as theVicars of Christ; never have they dared lay hands on the faith committedto their care.

The difficulty lies in another direction. As has already been explained,the Church claims infallibility only in matters of faith; but a littlereflection will show us that there are many things not coming directlyunder this head yet appertaining to it. In these latter she claimsunquestioning outward obedience at least. Thus she has the right todetermine when any scientific theory or other controversy bears uponmatters of faith, or has a dangerous tendency to do so; also to checkthe usurpation of State, when they begin to reach in this direction; andin the exercise of this prerogative she is not guarded from error. Ihave already shown how slow, cautious and gentle, has been her dealingon the whole with controversies that do relate to faith; much more sohas she been in the kindred but outer domain. Still, to our falliblereason, it may sometimes appear that she acts hastily and wrongly inforbidding certain things. She forbids at one epoch what she allows inanother; tacitly withdrawing the former condemnation. This, I repeat,is a difficulty, and, stated baldly thus, must often perplex evenCatholics.

But let our opponents be as candid as I have been. Let them admit—whatis no more than a fact—that this prerogative of the Church has beenexercised very seldom; and that even on the most of these occasions, theChurch has in the end proved to be in the right, and the supposed martyrin the wrong. Things are not to be judged simply in themselves, but acourse of events prove them; and there is a season for all matters, anda season when they are not in order. This right or power is a necessityto every constituted body of whatever kind. A State, for instance, maywrongly condemn a man for some offence; but that is no argument againstthe State having the right of judging in such matters, even if it mustincur the danger of[Pg 56] wrong judgment once more. If this prerogative weretaken from the Church, all outside the simple domain of faith would fallinto a mere chaos. Now, let the man who holds that this would be as itshould be, let him consistently carry out his doctrine into all theconcerns of life, and a hideous chaos would be the result. Has not suchbeen the result in religious matters outside the Catholic Church? And aschaos has resulted there from revolt against the constituted authority,so would it be in society at large, were the theory consistently carriedout. To say that non-infallible exercise of authority should, on accountof occasional error, be resisted and overthrown, is simply suicidal; andan objection founded on it is no more than an objection founded on thefact of evil in man's nature, of which it is a necessary part. And intothis bottomless pit of doubt I for one do not purpose to fall.

Let the problem, then, be fully grasped. It is to secure sufficientliberty and a stable authority. Freedom in itself is a good; but such isman's fallen nature, that it cannot be enjoyed without a partialsacrifice of itself, which it yields up to authority. This becomes thedomain of authority, and the two interact on each other. So much isclear; but conflicts arise, and the precise issue is, not exactlybetween the two, but as to where their boundaries meet. We Catholicsbelieve that we hold the solution in our hands, and I shall now merelystate how I look at it, admitting, of course, that I may be inincidental error.

The conflict is supposed to lie now between science and the Church.Well, stated simply I would say, let scientists become theologicallyfounded, and let theologians become scientists. At first blush this maysound like a paradox; but it is not. If theologians would honestlystrive to master scientific theories, there would be less danger ofhasty action on their part. Many of them would not stand committed, asthey do, to a condemnation of evolution, while on the other hand it wasnot their business to sanction it; and if scientists had not allowedthemselves to become narrow-minded in their studies, they would not havesimilarly placed themselves in a false position by trying to make theirlegitimate discoveries bear upon matters not within their range. Thepoint is, that a Catholic, whether scientist or theologian, should notallow himself to be alarmed by the rash utterances of individuals; but,conscious of a right purpose and true faith, pursue his track to theend, knowing that natural truth cannot clash with supernatural; if attimes it appears so, then he knows that this is only temporary, and thatin the end difficulties will clear away. Charity on each side will go along way. However, I think the Church has forborne remarkably in thesematters, not committing herself to any precise attitude, but awaitingthe issue of the struggle. No idea could be falser than that thescientist would hamper himself in submitting to the Church. Quiteotherwise. He would, by this step, secure a central pillar of support,and thence venturing could go further than any of them now dream of. Theseparation of science and the Church is the distinctive evil of the day.Both would gain, in strength and freedom, by a union, and the progressof the next century would thus redouble that of this.

Hugh P. McElrone.

FOOTNOTES:

[B] Newman's "Apologia," pp. 274, 275.

[Pg 57]

Honor to the Germans.

Letters from those missionaries in Annam, who have escaped the fatewhich has befallen so many of their flocks, agree in charging therepresentatives of France with a negligence, which, under thecirc*mstances, assumes the very gravest aspect. Père Dourisboure, forinstance, writing from the Seminary at Saïgon, where he has takenrefuge, declares that the presence of French vessels at some of theports, and the firing of a few shots without hurting any one, would havebeen the means of saving the lives of some thirty thousand Christians,and securing their homes and possessions against injury. Formerly, hesays, the mandarins contented themselves with putting missionaries andthe leading converts to death; but this time, the persecution and hatredof France, rather than of Christianity, has been the cause of what canonly be called a war of extermination, and France has done nothing forthose who have suffered for their supposed loyalty to her. When the newsof the massacre at Qui-Nhon, where there were seven thousand Christians,reached Mgr. van Camelbeke, he at once requested the commandant of theLyon, which was lying at that port, to see to the safety of FatherAuger and Father Guitton; but that officer replied that his instructionswould not allow him to fire a single shot in defence of the missionariesor the native Christians, and all representations and entreaties on thesubject proved ineffectual. In this difficulty aid came from anunlooked-for quarter. Deserted by their own countrymen, the missionariesapplied to the captain of a German merchantman, which was in the port,and the request being acceded to, two of the Fathers and five Germansailors rowed ashore, armed to the teeth, to arrange for the escape ofas many Christians as possible. They were met by three mandarins, one ofwhom was the bitterest enemy of the Christians. These the sailorscaptured and put in irons on board their vessel, and secure in thepossession of these hostages, they proceeded to bring off some sevenhundred Christians, the utmost number which the ship could contain,forcing the natives to assist in the work. One of the mandarins was thensent ashore charged with a message that any act of violence against theChristians would be visited upon the two who remained in the custody ofthe Germans. Père Dourisboure's narrative ceases with the safe arrivalof the seven hundred Christians at Saïgon; but we may well hope that thebrave Protestant sailors on their return to Qui-Nhon found that theirdevice had proved effectual.

A Writer in the New York Commercial gives facts and figures to provethat there is no quarter of the globe so much in need of missionaryenterprise as New England. The Puritans have ceased to be a churchgoingpeople.

[Pg 58]

Vindication.

From the German of Reinick.

"Why lingerest here in the greenwood,
All day in a childish dream,
Toying with leaves and flowers,
Watching the wavelets gleam,
While a world grown old and hoary
With the spirit of change is rife,
And the outworn past and the present
Are grappling in deadly strife?"

Still here will I dwell in quiet,
Tho' without the tempests rave;
And while all things reel and totter,
Will seek me an oaken stave,
Plucked from a tree that has weathered
The storms against it hurled,
While into the dust are crumbling
The props that uphold the world.

Yes, I'll choose this silent garden
Tho' around me deserts lie,
And bask in the ancient glories
Of earth and sea and sky.
While alone on dark thoughts of ruin
Your pulseless bosoms brood,
I'll build me a bower of roses,
And rejoice in my solitude.

"Rejoice! Verily we've forgotten
The sound of so strange a word;
Nowadays notes of scorn and anger
May well in youth's songs be heard;
For the woes of our earthly existence
Should find a voice in your rhyme,
Since the word of the poet is ever
The mirror of his time."

No, no, in the heart of the poet
Can no scornful spirit live—
He is wroth at human baseness,
Can over the sorrows grieve
That round this old earth are woven
Like some fateful web of doom,
And he weeps that bright gleams of radiance
So seldom pierce the gloom.

But whenever a ray out-flashes,
Drink it in with heart and mind,
And a hopeful premonition
Of the future in it find:—
Rejoice, when the sun is shining!
Joy purifies the breast,
And whoso with pure heart rejoiceth,
Even here below is blest!

"What! you believe in the bliss of Heaven
In a happiness yet to be?
Your faith, like your other emotions,
Is mere childish fantasy.
Remain as you have been ever,
A child from your very birth,
Unworthy with men to hold counsel
On the woes and the welfare of earth."

Yes, I believe in the word of promise,
I believe in each holy word,
In the power that clothes the lily,
And that feeds the nestling bird;
"Be like unto children, of such is
God's Kingdom." Ah! well, in sooth,
If all were as little children
In purity and in truth!

To the weal and the woe of the nations
I do not seal my breast,
Tho' my Motherland is dearer
To me than all the rest.
If to fold universal being,
'Neath its wings the mind aspires,
Still the heart needs narrower limits
For the growth of its sacred fires.

Rev. John Costello.

Jules Janin, a witty French writer, nicknamed lobsters "NavalCardinals." He probably imagined that lobsters in the sea are as red asthey are when served on our tables or placed in the windows of ourfishmonger's shops. Curiously enough sailors call the ships used tocarry our red-coated soldiers from one part of the world to another,lobster-boxes.[Pg 59]

Tracadie and the Trappists.

The flourishing village of Tracadie, in the county of Antigonish,Eastern Nova Scotia, well sustains for its French inhabitants, theprestige, as industrious husbandmen, which their ancestors'contemporaries established in Western Nova Scotia—the land sung of byLongfellow in his "Evangeline;" and the much-vaunted superiority of theAnglo-Saxon, reads like a melancholy sarcasm, in the face of the factthat the lands from which the inoffensive Acadians were mercilesslyhunted, are, to-day, far, very far, removed from the teeming fertility,which charmed the land-pirates in the last century. Simple-minded folksare wont to say, that the lands of the dispersed Acadians, languishunder a curse, nor need we, of necessity, dissent from this theory, ifwe consider the manifestation of the curse to be shown, in a lack ofskill, or industry—or mayhap both—in the descendants of those whoprofited by that infamous transaction. Certain it is, that these landsare now much less fertile than of yore.

Arriving at Tracadie, as we drive from the Eastern Extension RailwayStation, we notice as a curious coincidence of alliteration, the sign,—

HALF-WAY HOUSE.
H. H. HARRINGTON.

and remark that with the super-addition of "Halt Here," the signboardwould be an unique curiosity.

Leaving the hospitable farmhouse of Mr. DeLorey, on a bright OctoberSunday, after hearing Mass in the neat and commodious parish churchdedicated to St. Peter, a pleasant drive of three miles, bring us to theTrappist Monastery of Our Lady of Petit Clairvaux, the buildings ofwhich are of brick, and form a quadrangle, of which one side has yet tobe erected.

Ringing the porter's bell we are admitted and handed over to BrotherRichard, the genial and amiable guest master, who is most assiduous inhis attentions to us.

The monastery was founded as a Priory, early in the present century byFather Vincent, a native of France, and was raised to the dignity of anabbey nine years ago, when the present Abbot, Father Dominic, wasconsecrated. The community at present number thirty-seven, of whomsixteen are priests and choir-religious, the remaining twenty-one beinglay brothers; the monks being chiefly Belgians, with a few fromMontreal, and a few from this vicinity.

The abbey is surrounded by four hundred acres of land, tolerablyfertile, though rough in part, and has excellent limestone quarries—themonks burning as much as one hundred barrels of lime at once in theirkiln; they also manufacture all the bricks required for the multifariousworks which are incessantly in progress. Their domain is well[Pg 60] wateredby a stream upon which the indefatigable monks have had a mill erected.At the date of our visit, they had just finished a new dam composed ofimmense blocks of limestone, and had almost completed a new and largermill—to supersede the old one—and which in addition to the ordinarygrist grinding will also be utilized, simultaneously, for carding,sawing boards, and sawing shingles. The new mill has dimensions of 150 x40 ft., and the main barn 220 x 40 ft. The latter building nowaccommodates fifty heads of horned cattle, including some Jerseythoroughbreds and Durhams and six horses. We were also shown someBerkshire thoroughbred pigs, enormous, unwieldy brutes, one ratheryouthful porker being estimated to weigh nearly six hundred pounds.

The monks make a large quantity of butter, all the year round, the saleof which forms an important item of their revenue. The abbey has madeits repute all through the surrounding country, and it is scarcelypossible to over-estimate the benefit of this model farm to theinhabitants of adjacent lands; combining as it does the latestimprovements in agriculture with the untiring industry of the TrappistMonk. For several years, their grist-mill was the only one for a greatdistance, and even now wheat is brought in, for grinding, from a radiusof fifteen miles.

The monks contain among themselves all the trades necessary to theirwell-ordered community, ex-gr two blacksmiths, two tailors, twomillers, a baker, shoemaker, and doctor, not forgetting the wonderfulBrother Benedict, who is at once architect, carpenter, mason andclockmaker. In the last-mentioned capacity his ingenuity is shown by aclock which has four faces; one visible from the road approaching theabbey, the second from the chapel, the third from the infirmary, and thefourth from the refectory, where the modest table service of tin platesand wooden spoons and forks, offer but few attractions to those whooverlooking the final end of all created things, look at life from theanimal point of view.

We are also taken to the dormitory, and look into the narrowcompartments, where the good brothers sleep, with easy consciences, upontheir hard beds; and are also shown the discipline, which, though nodoubt a wholesome instrument of penance, does not in any way resemblethe article of torture under which guise it masquerades in the averageanti-Jesuit novel.

Descending again we are taken to the neat cemetery where the brothersare deposited in peace after life's course is run, covered only by theircoarse serge habits, and without coffins. Every grave has painted inwhite letters, on the black ground of a plain, wooden cross, the name inreligion once borne by him, whose mortal remains rest below.

In the centre of this final resting-place stands a tall cross, and nearby we observe a bare skull, whose mute lips powerfully preach the follyof worldliness, and like an accusing spirit warns all beholders of thedread day when every wasted minute, as well as every useless word, mustbe strictly accounted for.

The costume of the monks, in its coarseness and simplicity, would[Pg 61] notcommend itself to our modern dudes; but, then, life is a terriblereality to these brothers, who, hearing the voice of God, have hastenedto follow his call, fully realizing, that without the one thingnecessary, all else is vanity.

These reflections are interrupted by the abbey bell, calling us toVespers, which are chanted by the monks (the music being supplied by theorganist Father Bernard), upon the conclusion of which, we take ourdeparture, deeply and favorably impressed with our visit to thismonastery, which stands alone, in the Maritime Provinces of the CanadianDominion, and sincerely grateful, for being enabled to see with our owneyes the works of those much-abused monks, who in general are sofrequently defamed by the thoughtless boys who write for the secularpress, and by the equally empty-headed old women—of both sexes—whowrite for that class of periodical which by a curious misnomer isdesignated religious. These are the people, who, it is to be feared,shut their eyes to the truth, lest they should be compelled toacknowledge it.

In the face of so much prejudice, it is pleasant to be able to recordthat quite recently some Protestant clergymen visited the monastery, anddid not refrain from expressing their honest and undisguised admirationfor what they beheld.

J. W. O'Ryan.

Gladstone at Emmet's Grave.

HOW THE UNMARKED TOMBSTONE OF THE MARTYR LOOKED.

The day Mr. Gladstone went to Dublin to receive the freedom of the city,which the town council had unanimously agreed to confer upon him, hespent a day in the docks and courts and in visiting St. Michael'sChurch—a place full of historical interest. On the vestry table lie twocasts of the heads of the brothers Shears, who were beheaded in therebellion of 1798. Such are the properties of the soil in the cemeterythat the bodies of those are as perfect as the day on which they werehanged.

The church itself is eight hundred years old, having been built by aDanish bishop during the ascendency of his race.

Mr. Gladstone examined the communion plate, some of which came out ofthe spoils of the Spanish Armada.

But these were light trivialities! The grave of Robert Emmet is here."Let no man mark my tomb," said he, "until my country takes her placeamong the nations of the earth."

Mr. Gladstone stood beside the rough granite, unchiselled, unlettered,silent slab. No name, no date, no word of sorrow, of hope. The sides areclipped and hacked, for emigrants have come from afar to take to theirhome in the new world bits of the tomb of Robert Emmet. How he comes tolie here is simply said. When his head was cut off[Pg 62] in Thomas Street,his body was taken to Bully's Acre,—what a name!—and buried.

Rev. Mr. Dobbyn, a sympathizer in the cause, was then Rector of St.Michael's; he ordered the body to be disinterred that night, and heplaced it secretly in St. Michael's church-yard. A nephew of RobertEmmet, a New York judge, corroborated this statement some years ago. ButEmmet is not the only rebel that lies here in peace.

Oliver Boyd sleeps here, with God's noblest work, "an honest man,"written on his tombstone. Here, too, is the grave of the hero, WilliamJackson, who was tried, convicted and sentenced to death. While thejudge was still pronouncing the awful doom, the man grew faint and in afew minutes fell down dead. He had swallowed poison on hearing theverdict from the jury. In this vault, over which Mr. Gladstone peersanxiously, you can see a group of heads, all of 1798 men and there onone of them, is the hangman's crape as it stuck in the wounded necksince the day on which it and its owner parted company. Mr. Gladstone issilent as he sees all this and at last mournfully moves away.

Is there ever a tragedy in which clown is wholly absent? As he stepsover the graves, up comes a man as drunk as a goat, and cries out, "Ah!Mr. Gladstone will you take the duty off the whiskey?" Upon which he ofHawarden Castle turns him round and says slowly—"My friend, the dutydoes not seem to stand much in your way."

John W. Monahan.

Gerald Griffin.

That part of Limerick formerly known as Englishtown, and at presentlocalized in city ordinances and surveying maps as King's Island,consists of a knot of antique houses crowding thick around a venerablecathedral. An ancient castle, its dismantled tower within easy bow-shot,overrun with weeds and ivy, overlooks the noble river, whose expansivesweep of waters is at this point of passage spanned by an old, but stillsubstantial bridge. In the shadow of the cathedral and within hearing ofthe river, Gerald Griffin, dramatist, poet and novelist, was born on the12th of December, 1803. His father, who had succeeded to a goodlyestate, a considerable fortune and an honored name, sold the fee simpleof his landed inheritance, and removed to Limerick, that his childrenmight enjoy all the advantages of a good education, which at that periodwere best obtainable in large towns and great cities. He establishedhimself in the business of a brewer; and, as in every speculative walkof life where personal energy is not well supplemented by judiciousmanagement and long experience, time alone was needed to diminish hiscapital by rewarding his unremitting industry with profitless returns.The natural disposition of this good man presented a medley of thoseattractive qualities which secure for their fortunate possessor animmediate share of the sympathetic good-will[Pg 63] alike of the friend andthe stranger. He had a kind heart and a winning manner. He could enjoyand exchange a good joke, and to the end of his life was a sterling andan uncompromising patriot. Yet his admiration for valor and virtue wascirc*mscribed by no political limits, by no narrow-minded prejudices. Anultra-volunteer in '82, and an O'Connellite in '29, he was enthusiasticover the victory at Waterloo, and wept at the melancholy fate of SirSamuel Romilly. Gerald's mother was a gentle and accomplished lady,whose affection for her child was tempered and regulated by thetreasures of a refined and cultured mind, and by a sensitively religiousdisposition. When he was in his third year, Mrs. Griffin, with herfamily, removed to a country district, which, from local associationwith the escapades of lepracauns and phookas, had inherited thesignificative title of Fairy Lawn. The new home was romanticallysituated amid the umbrageous woods and pastoral meadow-lands throughwhich the Shannon flows at its confluence with the little Ovaan River.His infancy thus cradled in a landscape rich in the diversifiedpicturesqueness of storied ruin and historic tradition, what wonder thatGerald at a very early age should feel the inspiration of his poeticsurroundings as he looked towards the winding river, the green fields,the islands mirrored in the tributary Fergus, and the solemn shade andcloistered loneliness of ruined abbeys and gray cathedrals. To thecareful training of his good mother he was indebted for the exquisitetaste and truthfulness with which he interpreted nature; for the nicesense of honor which distinguished him through life, and which oftenrose to a weakness; for the delicate reserve which made absence fromhome a self-imposed hermitage; and for the deep, devotional feeling andhealthy habit of moral reflection which ever shaped and inwove the purecurrent of his thoughts and writings.

A visiting tutor gave Gerald an elementary knowledge of English untilthe year 1814, when he was sent to Limerick. He remained in the cityattending a classical school till he had acquired a familiarity with theworks of the great Latin authors. At an age when it is scarcelycustomary to emancipate children from the prim decorum and politerestraint of the nursery, young Griffin was pouring with unmixed delightover the pages of Horace, Ovid and Virgil. Of the three, he preferredthe sweet pastoral of the gentle poet of Mantua, and to the end of hislife retained this partiality. Inspiration caught from so pure a sourcewrought itself into innumerable songs and sonnets, which Gerald managedto write clandestinely, when some new frolic drew away the attention ofhis brothers and sisters, and left him in the enjoyment of a peacefulhour and a quiet corner. During these intervals of busy writing he wasinsensibly acquiring that light and graceful style, by the gentle charmof which the most sober strain of serious thought became the mostacceptable kind of agreeable reading. Though still young, he could wellrealize how indispensable a good style is for literary success. He livedat a time when books were comparatively scarce, in a district remotefrom easy access to well-filled libraries; when the cost oftransportation often equalled the advertised price for the newest cantoof "Childe Harold," or the latest novel by the "Great Unknown." But whatwould have been disadvantages to many a beginner proved to[Pg 64] have been ofincalculable benefit to Gerald Griffin. His knowledge of books andauthors was limited to the extent of his mother's library, and itcontained, among other choice works, the writings of the inimitableauthor to whose graceful allurement Washington Irving owed half his fameand all the classic sweetness of his fascinating style. He copied outwhole chapters of the "Vicar of Wakefield," and rarely went out of doorswithout bringing for a companion a copy of the "Animated Nature."

In the boy, pensive and serious beyond his years, might be traced thedifferent characteristics of mind and heart which eventually made up thetexture of his later manhood, the yearning desire for retirement, thehabit of sober reflection, the trait of gentle sadness, and thepassionate love for home and country. The years of his childhood passedunattended by a single sorrow. Time, however, brought a change, whichbroke rudely in upon the even tenor of his happy life. The prettyhomestead on the banks of the Shannon was to be broken up, old poetichaunts had to be forsaken, and the sheep of the little fold were to bedispersed.

In the year 1820 his father suffered such heavy losses that a slendercompetency was all that remained at his disposal to resume, if he hadbeen willing, a business which had hitherto been productive of onlydisappointments and regrets. The family, not wishing to run furtherrisks, set sail for America, and settled in another Fairy Lawn, inSusquehanna County, Pa., leaving Gerald and two younger sisters toremain with their brother, a physician, who was at that time living inthe town of Adare. Here Gerald remained for two years, pounding drugsand manipulating pills, ostensibly to study medicine, but in reality todevise plots for projected dramas, and to sketch character and incidentfor tales in prose and poetry. The pathway of his future career hadalready been carefully mapped out. He had long pined in secret for aliterary career, and years only whetted his eagerness to put hisunspoken wish into practical execution. Like poor Kirke White, he feltthe irresistible influence of an unmistakable destiny drawing him, as hefancied, from lowly walks to ways of loftier prospect and more uncertainenterprise. In the prophetic fervor of anticipated triumph, he foresawhimself the lion of the literary coterie, the courted favorite at titledlevees and fashionable dinner parties. He occasionally contributed shortessays and fugitive poems to the Limerick Reporter, a sheet of news onwhich were wont to be chronicled the gossip of the city, critiques ofprovincial dramas, statistics of the Baldoyle steeplechases, or thelatest speech by the Liberator. Sometimes he ran into the city to have achat with a young man, who had begun to be recognized in the circuit ofprovincial journalism as a literary star of rising magnitude. The youngman was John Banim, whose noble services under trying circ*mstancesGerald had reason some years later to experience and appreciate. Duringthe two years immediately preceding his departure for London, he devotedhis attention almost exclusively to dramatic composition. Banim's "Damonand Pythias" appeared in 1821, and the success which had at once raisedits obscure author into prominence, must have had no slight influence inconfirming the resolution[Pg 65] which Gerald had already made. A religiousmotive, too, entered into the spirit and outlined the object and policyof his work. His plays, when they should be produced, were not toterminate with uproarious applause and calls for the "gifted author" atthe fall of the curtain. The spirit of the drama had at this timewofully departed from the sphere of its legitimate function receivedfrom historic tradition. The design of the great dramatic master hadbeen in his own words to hold the "mirror up to nature." The interest ofLondon stage-managers led them to pander to public taste, and crowd theboards with sensational makeshifts and spectacular unrealities. Otway's"Venice Preserved" and Heman's "Vespers of Palermo" could not attract apit full; while scenes introducing battlefields, burning forests, andcataracts of real water crowded the houses to overflowing. It was atthis juncture that Griffin hoped to bring about his dramatic revolution.It was with this object in view that he composed a tragedy and read itfor his brother, who, seeing that it contained much that was excellentand much that gave evidence of future success, no longer withheld hispermission for Gerald to try his future in the heart of the Englishmetropolis.

One cold morning, in the autumn of the year 1823, Gerald Griffin foundhimself a bewildered stranger in the streets of London. The sense ofutter loneliness, the feeling of timid embarrassment, which overpoweredhim in the bustle and uproar, amid the winding streets and smokylabyrinths of the densely populated Babel, had been experienced by manyanother aspiring adventurer, whom the glitter of a great name and thehope of literary preferment had drawn from happy retirements to battlethrough adversity to fame and fortune. His first object on his arrivalin town was to seek the shelter of respectable lodgings; his next, tointroduce himself, to explain his projects and to submit his tragedy tothe manager of a London theatre. The manuscript was returned after somemonths delay, with the intimation that it was too poetic and toodidactic, and would require extensive revision before it could bebrought upon the stage. Accident, rather than good luck, threw Banimacross his path, and he proved to be a valuable and a faithful friend.In the little sanctum at the rear of No 7 Amelia Place, Brompton, whereCurran had written his speeches and Banim had composed his tragedies,Gerald sat down to reinspect the returned work, and at the suggestion ofhis friend to omit whole scenes, to substitute others, to lop offepithets which were too glaringly poetic, and to abbreviate speecheswhich were too discursively long. But despite all the author's revisionand Banim's abler experience "Aquire" was fated never to occupy theboards. No amount of labor could redeem the fault of a drama whichconveyed moral precepts in the classic solemnity of select and studiedperiods. Despairing, at length, of ever having it produced, Geraldwithdrew it in disgust; but what he did with the manuscript, whether itwas purposely destroyed, or accidentally lost, we are unable to say."Aquire," however, must have contained many excellencies, judging fromother poetical work of the author written at the same time, and from thetestimony of his accomplished brother, whose excellent literary tastemade him a competent judge. "Gisippus," a tragedy[Pg 66] written at thisperiod, was produced with great success two years after the author'sdeath, Macready sustaining the title rôle. A series of continuedfailures to satisfy the wants of exacting stage managers, slightlyaltered the plan, though not the purpose, of the work which Griffin hadset himself to accomplish. He was compelled to give up writingtragedies, and write for a livelihood; but London was overcrowded withimpecunious journalists, and he received the merest pittance in returnfor the most arduous species of literary drudgery. The author of"Irene," on his arrival in London, was not more incontestably theliterary helot at the mercy of Cave, Millar, and Osborne, than wasGerald Griffin the typical booksellers' hack amid shuffling reviewersand extorting publishers. Johnson at the outset of his literary careerreceived but five guineas for a quarto English translation of "LobosVoyage to Abyssinia." Griffin, after working for weeks received twoguineas for a translation of a volume and a half of Prevot's works. Buthe was not to be easily dismayed by first reverses of fortune. He hadlong ago made himself familiar with the catalogue of miseries in theliterary martyrology beginning with Nash and Otway, and ending with hisfriend Banim. Early intimacy with distress and disappointment would butstimulate him the better to conquer both. He would sacrifice everything,consistent with a stainless name and an honorable career, in theattainment of his cherished end—the society of friends, the littleluxuries of a frugal table, the modest though comfortable room in whichhe had hitherto lived and toiled. Poor Gerald! he had yet to learn whenhis most ambitious yearnings had been fully realized, that worldlyhonors do not satisfy the cravings of a Christian heart, that the mostimperishable coronal of true success is woven of deeds little, lowly,and seemingly contemptible, and that labor spent in purely secularpursuits is labor spent in vain. But the nobler promptings of his naturewere as yet unheard amid the discord in which he lived.

He now removed to a miserable garret in a lonely corner of a lonelystreet in the loneliest part of London. The forlorn solitude of hisdreary room was, however, somewhat cheered by the thought, that in suchdizzy eeries, amid the eccentric gables and rheumatic chimney pots ofgreat capitals, works were often composed which were destined eventuallyto confer lasting honors on their obscure authors. Goldsmith had writtenhis "Vicar of Wakefield" in the memorable, dingy eminence at the head ofBreakneck Steps. Pope, walking with Harte in the Haymarket, entered anold house, where mounting three pair of creaking stairs he pointed to anopen door and said: "In this garret Addison wrote his 'Campaign.'"Gerald Griffin, however, had yet to experience all the hardships whichwere endured by Goldsmith before his landlady threatened eviction, andby Addison before he received the fortuitous visit of Henry Boyle, LordChancellor of the Exchequer. He wrote prose and poetry for which he wasoften glad to get sufficient money wherewith to purchase a cup of coffeeand a crust of bread. He studied Spanish, and when he had so masteredthe language as to be able to translate fluently, his publisher saidthat on second consideration he would prefer to receive originalcontributions. And now commenced[Pg 67] a period in Griffin's life, which, forexceptional want and misery, might claim a certain pre-eminence in thelong list of hapless victims, who made up the literary hecatomb of theJohnsonian era. Without the grosser elements, which enter into theirmethods of living and disfigure their character, the abject squalor ofvulgar surroundings, the love for pot-houses and low companionships, theutter disregard for personal respect, he otherwise underwent all thepain, the want and uncertainty of their impoverished condition. But theroughness of the road was unthought of in the anticipation of a richreward at the end of his journey. He would redouble his efforts toensure its nearer approach. He abandoned old companionships; invitationsto dinners and literary soirées, which came from his friends Banim andMcGinn, were politely declined. He locked himself in his lonely room andwrote through the hours of an unbroken day. Only at night when the lampswere lit, and the crowds had left the street, would he venture out ofdoors, and then merely to take a ten minutes' walk to ease his achinghead, and to rest his wearied eyes. Once he remained three whole dayswithout tasting food, till a friend accidently came to see him and foundhim pale and faint but still writing. Yet in all the sunless gloom ofthis dreadful time his letters home were most cheerful. The want ofactual nourishment he felt, the evil influences by which he wassurrounded, the chances of certain success which awaited him if he wouldbut do violence to a certain portion of his scrupulous orthodoxy,counted for nothing with one whose good sense could see no graveinconsistency between temporary poverty and the first efforts ofstruggling genius. Nor is poverty so fatal to the efforts of genius as asuperficial thinker would suppose it to be. To a noble nature itpresents no feature of degradation or terror. Its supposed evils are,for the most part, begotten of the pride of those who are its victims.

If it forbade Griffin to ask or receive favors from those who were ableand willing to help him, it thereby conferred self-independence andceaseless energy, the constant forerunners of inevitable success. Hisindustry was speedily rewarded, and in a manner which seemed the resultrather of good luck than of strenuous effort or personal merit. One dayGerald made bold to write an article after the manner of those in thegreat reviews. He sent it anonymously to the proprietor of a leadingperiodical, and in return received unsolicited a cheque for a handsomesum of money, with an invitation to continue sending contributions of asimilar kind. This was the first hopeful speck in the horizon of abrilliant future. The benevolence of the kindly publisher did not endhere. He sought out the anonymous writer, invited him to dinner, treatedhim handsomely, and obtained for him the editorship of a newpublication. "It never rains but it pours," is a true old maximattributable with equal propriety to good and evil happenings. Hithertohe had been unable to make his time profitable either in a literary orpecuniary sense. His later contributions had all at once begun toattract attention, and the amount of time at his disposal seemed tooshort to enable him to satisfy all the requirements of numerousengagements. He was employed as a parliamentary reporter and as a writerof short plays for the English Opera House. He reviewed books which[Pg 68]were published, and revised books which were unpublished. He contributedessays, stories and poetry to the News of Literature, the EuropeanReview, and the London Magazine, for the smallest one of which hereceived more money than for the huge translation of Prevot two yearsprevious. He was now enabled to take more comfortable chambers; but hemiscalculated his powers of endurance; when in such a stage of mentalanxiety and mental application he would remain up at literary work tillhe heard the church clocks strike four in the morning. The evil resultsof this abuse of health soon made themselves manifest. He had lost allappetite for food. His rest was broken by fits of insomnia, during whichhis heart would beat so loud as to be distinctly heard by his brother inthe same room. In the streets he would be suddenly attacked by swooningfits, during which he would have to support himself by leaning on gateposts and sitting on door-steps. At the earnest solicitation of his goodbrother he set out for Ireland with the hope of recruiting his failingenergies by a few months' leave of absence. His vacation was productiveof literary as well as of sanitary results.

He returned to London with a volume of stories for the press, and soldthe copyright to the Messrs. Simpkin Marshall & Co., for £70. The workappeared in December 1826, under the title of "Hollandtide Tales." Itwas well received. The style was original, graceful and easy. The threenovels, which comprised the series, were interesting and free from thetaint of grossness and immorality, so erroneously deemed essential whendescribing the habits and customs of the poorer classes. It was aneloquent vindication of a much-wronged portion of the Irish peasantry,and like Banim's contemporary writings, it was hailed with universalexultation in Irish literary circles. The success of his first work wasso immediate and decisive that he resigned his editorship, abandoned themagazines and reviews, and continued with few interruptions to appearannually before the public as a novelist. "Tales of the MunsterFestivals," which appeared in two series, and for which he received£250, was the title of his next work. In 1858 appeared "The Collegians"which placed him with one bound in the fore front of the great writersof his country. It was not only the best Irish novel that had appearedprevious to its first publication, but is admittedly the best that hasever been written since.[C] "The Invasion," "The Rivals," "The Duke ofMonmouth," and others which he wrote subsequently, are all far inferiorwhen placed side by side with this great master-piece of fiction. In itmay be seen to best advantage the wonderful power and versatility ofGriffin's genius as a great novelist, for within its single compass hehas touched with a master hand the whole gamut of human passion andhuman affections. As a literary artist of the "dark and touching mode ofpainting," which Carleton has set down as the chief characteristic ofhis brother novelist, Griffin has few equals and no superior. To depictthe more sombre tints of[Pg 69] human nature, to trace the unbroken eventslinked together in a career of crime, from the first commission of eviltill its last expiation in the felon ship, or on the gallows, heespecially delights. He does not delay the progress of the plot toimpress upon his reader the exact frame of mind in which his hero feltat certain trying conjunctures. This suggests itself unconsciously, inoccasional snatches of vague and emotional distraction, in half utteredreplies, in the joke that mechanically escapes the lips, in thecapricious laugh that best discovers the anguish preying on the mind andthe despair eating at the heart. But it is in the ingenuity with whichhe makes local surroundings play such an important part in the drama ofhuman destiny, that Griffin excels to a remarkable extent. What readerof the "Collegians" has not realized all the perils of the windy nightand the stormy sea with trepidation and horror scarcely surpassed by theoccupants of the little craft tossing amid the boiling breakers—Eily,the hapless runaway, Danny, the elfin hunchback, and Hardress, theconscience-stricken victim of conflicting thoughts and passionateimpulses? How much more tragic the finding of the dead body of Eily, the"pride of Garryowen," since it occurs on the hunting field, surroundedby the half maudlin squires, and before the bloodless face of thehorrified murderer? But Griffin deserves mention other than as adramatist and novelist. It is saddening to know that in an age where somuch weak sentiment, scarcely discernible in its wealth of verboseornamentation, is so easily imposed upon the public under the name ofpoetry, that so much really good poetry should be forgotten and unread.One is often provoked to regret that the scalping knife has becomeblunted in the hands of the "buff and blue," and that the race of usefulparodists should seem to have expired with the wits of "Fraser." As apoet Griffin is comparatively little known; and yet, to make a seemingparadox, few poets have been more universally popular. The exquisitesongs, "A Place in Thy Memory," "Schule Agrah" and "Aileen Aroon" havebeen read and sung wherever the English language is spoken. Yet very fewyoung Irish ladies and gentlemen are aware that Gerald Griffin is theauthor. The religious spirit which exhibits its moral influence throughthe thread of his stories appears more extensively and more perceptiblyin his poetry. If his shorter poems are the best of all he has written,the best of all his short poems are those which breathe a religiousspirit. To verify our assertion we need only mention, "Old Times, OldTimes!" "The Mother's Lament," "O'Brazil" and "The Sister of Charity."It is a matter for much regret that Griffin should have written solittle poetry. Had he devoted more exclusive attention to thisdepartment of literature, he would undoubtedly have become the Burns ofhis country; for his muse had taught him a kindred song, and given himto write with equal tenderness and simplicity.

In the year 1838, Gerald Griffin had attained a popularity which wouldhave satisfied the wishes of the most ardent literary enthusiast. He wasno longer the literary hack, the despised minion, the swindled victim atthe mercy of harpy publishers and newspaper knaves. He could now writeat his leisure, and be handsomely rewarded for his labor. Positions fromwhich much emolument might be derived were[Pg 70] offered him, but he answeredthem with a polite refusal. Contributions were solicited to no purpose.The desultory articles written under pressure of hunger in theconfinement of the garret near St. Paul's were hunted for by publishers,who were too happy to pay a handsome premium for any thing printed overthe name of the now popular author. To those who have never tried torealize the working of divine grace in the hearts of the pure andvirtuous, Gerald Griffin would now seem to have nothing more to wishfor, no unacquired honor to enkindle a new aspiration, no need of moneyto compel him once more to write for a living. The wisdom of advancedyears, and a religious discernment guided by the spirit of God, andbecoming more devotional day by day, began at last to discover thesophistry and the deceit of human glory and human praise. He stillyearned after a mysterious something which he began to realize couldnever be found amid the jarring discord and empty distractions of thesecular world. A new light irradiated the thick gloom by which he hadlong been encompassed. Gradually the mist and shadow of doubt anddifficulty rolled away, disclosing at length the gray walls of a silentmonastery in spirit of unpretentious work and pious exercise, farsequestered from the busy haunts of worldly men. Step by step he wasapproaching the humble cell of recollection and prayer, in the religioussolitude of which he was to find true peace and lasting happiness. Fromthe cottage cradled on the Shannon's breast to his later home in thepoetic solitude of sweet Adare; from the three-cornered garret in theLondon back street to the tables of the rich and the titled, he hadexperienced every vicissitude between the antithetical extremes of joyand sorrow. When, at length, the final step was taken, it was not therash or eccentric choice of momentary impulse, but the matured result ofwise and cautious deliberation. He prepared to enter the noble order ofthe Christian Brothers, whose humble office it is to instruct thechildren of the poor, and whose labors in the cause of Christianeducation have been of incalculable benefit to the Irish race. Onemorning previous to Gerald's final departure, an elder brother enteredhis bedroom. He found him in a kneeling posture holding the lastfragment of a charred heap of manuscript over the blazing fire. He hadmade the final sacrifice to God of all that could wed his heart tofuture worldly honors. In the year 1838 he entered the ChristianBrothers at Cork, and after a short novitiate received the habit and thevows by which these holy men consecrate themselves to the service oftheir Maker and the spiritual welfare of their fellow men. But thesplendid genius of the new Brother was not destined to remain idle. Itwas now to be exercised more energetically than ever, consecrated as ithad been to the service of religion and the glory of God. He had justcompleted a small number of Catholic tales, written in his happiestvein, when a fatal attack of malignant fever struck the pen from hishand. Every remedy that the skill of great physicians could devise,every attention that loving confrères could bestow was procured for himduring his last illness. But the invisible decree had gone forth, andthe near passing was inevitable. He lingered but a few days, edifyinghis attendants by his fervent piety and resignation under suffering. Hedied consoled by the rites of Holy[Pg 71] Church on the 12th of June, 1840. Inthe humble cemetery, of the monastery at Cork, a modest grave, unnoticedamid rows of similar ones, is surmounted by a small cross. The crossbears the name of Brother Joseph, the grave holds all that was mortal ofthe good and gifted Gerald Griffin.

Oxford, N. J.

James H. Gavin.

FOOTNOTES:

[C] Mr. Justin McCarthy, speaking of "Irish Novelists" at Cork,in September, 1884, said: "We have some Irish novels which ought to beclassic, and about which I have over and over again taxed all thecritical experience I can summon up why they have failed to becomeclassic in the sense of Sir Walter Scott's novels. I cannot understandwhy Gerald Griffin's 'Collegians' fails to take a place in the publicestimation beside the best of the novels of Sir Walter Scott."

Rev. Father Fulton, S. J.,

Condescended to notice the ravings of Mr. Robert Ingersoll, at BostonCollege Hall, on the evening of the 11th of November. We should bepleased to publish a full report of the lecture, but our limits will notpermit us to do so. We merely give a few extracts: "Once upon a timethere was a person named Scholasticus, who suffered by death the loss ofhis child, to whose obsequies came the people in great throngs. But ourfriend, instead of receiving their expressions of condolence, hidhimself blushing in a corner, and, on being expostulated with, and askedwhy he was ashamed, replied: 'To bury so small a child before so largean assembly.' This lecture is the child, and the concourse is theaudience before me. I have been engaged on matters foreign to literaryand scientific pursuits, and have had no time to prepare a regularlecture, but I think it will not need much time to demolish Mr.Ingersoll. I will take his book on 'Orthodoxy,' in which he declaresthat 'he knows that the clergy know that they know nothing.' Mr.Ingersoll is not a philosopher, nor a theologian, though he may be, aswe hear, an orator of matchless voice and gesticulation. He is witty, asany one may easily be who attacks what we most revere. Let us look athis scholarship. He has no argument whatever, except the old objectionsbrought up in the schools. In the whole book there have been noreferences nor authorities cited. His only method of reasoning is thatby interrogation, why? why? why? Suppose I answer I don't know! Theproper test of an argument is to put it in syllogistic form, which isimpossible with Mr. Ingersoll's arguments. Again, the very importance ofthe subject demands a respectful and reverential treatment, which Mr.Ingersoll denies it. I will try to make a synopsis of the work. Mr.Ingersoll declares himself sincere in his belief, thereby insinuatingthat they who believe in Christianity are hypocrites. Then follows anexamination of the Congregational and Presbyterian creeds, under thesupposition, absurdly false, 'ex uno disce omnes.' 'Infidelity,' saysMr. Ingersoll, 'will prevail over Christianity.' This does not provethat Christianity is not the true religion, for infidelity may triumphonly because the intellect is obscured by passion. 'The Christianreligion,' says he, 'is supported only because of the contributions ofsome men.' Would those men have supported it had they not firmlybelieved in it? Again, Mr. Ingersoll says the Christian religion wasdestroyed by Mohammed, and yet no one knows it. Nor were the crusadesunjust and destructive wars, for the land which they fought for was onedearest[Pg 72] to them; their Saviour died there. Was it not a just war? Andthis war saved all Europe, for the power of Mohammed was rising rapidlyand was about to inundate all Europe. But the war was carried into theenemy's country, and by the attack all Europe was saved. Again, we werefreed from the ignorance of the dark ages (dark, as I may say, onlybecause we have no light on them), by the introduction into Italy ofsome manuscripts, according to Mr. Ingersoll. But the truth is, all thelearning of that period was centred in the church, and by her alone wereerected seats of learning. It was from the barbarian that this ignorancearose. Nor has the church been inimical to the sciences, moreparticularly to astronomy and its promoters, for among the most ableastronomers of Europe are to be found Catholic priests." The lecture wasdelivered to a large audience completely filling the College Hall.

Private Judgment a Failure.

It is a common fallacy of Protestants that the scepticism, which is soprevalent, affects the Catholic Church equally with Protestant sects.Now, this is a great and pernicious error, for it tends to divertsincere inquirers from seeking true, infallible doctrine in the church.When I witness the strenuous efforts made by Protestant writers againstscepticism, and their ill success, I am led to execrate the miscalled"Reformation." Had that horrible event not taken place, instead of thedesultory warfare by detached guerillas, we should have had the fullstrength and power of an organized, disciplined, compact army, againstscepticism. To speak even of the learning displayed by Protestantwriters is to suggest how much more vast the learning, that would now bethe portion of England, if the church property were in the hands of theAbbots of former days instead of being held by its present possessors.In force of reasoning, too, Protestant vindicators of religion are at animmense disadvantage. They are hampered by principles, which they shouldnever have adopted. Private judgment is to them what Saul's armor was toDavid, ill-fitting, and cumbersome. To borrow an illustration fromArchbishop Whately, "They are obliged to fight infidelity with theirleft hand; their right hand being tied behind them." One of thespecialties of this age is "historical research." The application of thehistorical criticism inaugurated by Niebuhr has dealt Protestism a fatalblow, while, on the other hand, it has been favorable to the cause ofCatholicity. This has happened for the reason that the Catholic Churchis not founded exclusively on the Bible, as Protestantism is. Catholicstake the Bible as an authentic history. This authentic historyestablishes the divine mission of our Lord, and the institution of thechurch by His divine authority. This church, "the pillar and ground oftruth," attests the divine authority of Holy Scripture. There is nocirculus vitiosus in our argument. With us the individual must bow tothe collective wisdom of the church, divinely established.[Pg 73] Protestantscut a pretty figure with private judgment. In political elections, andin clubs, meetings, and so forth, the Protestant very properly allowsthat the voice of the majority must prevail. This is common sense; andyet in religious matters forsooth, the private judgment of an ignorantand illiterate individual must be permitted to overrule the decision ofthe collective wisdom of learned theologians. This shows how far men areliable to be blinded by prejudice. In fact, if men had an interest indenying that "two and two make four," they would unquestionably do so.We may also deduce from this violent aberration in religion an argumentto prove the doctrine of original sin, and the existence of evil spiritsexercising a malignant influence on the souls and minds of men.

Physicists experience that longing for religion natural to man; andhence they endeavor to patch up some sort of a religion from the shredsof truth that are found in physical science, "rari nantes in gurgitevasto." Unfortunately, they are unacquainted with Catholic doctrine,and they see in the conflicting sects of Protestantism no good ground tobase their faith upon. Accustomed to deal with matter, they are unableto elevate their minds to the supernatural. They dissect the humancorpse, and stupidly wonder that in a dead body they cannot discover aliving soul; they search the empty tomb for the resurrected Saviour.

The minds of those men are set in a wooden, mechanical way. They areimpervious to logic at the very time that they are asserting their loyaladherence to its rules. They have a horror of Catholic conclusions as,it may be also remarked, have Protestants likewise. On this account,both classes prefer rather to accept the most untrustworthy theories ofphysical science, even when they verge on gross and laughable absurdity,than to grant the conclusions of Catholic theologians.

It must be borne in mind that the Bible is not one book, as popularProtestantism regards it. It is seen now in the light of historicalcriticism, that the amount of knowledge requisite for the properexercise of private judgment on the Bible is immense, and such as canonly be acquired by a few, comparatively speaking. Protestantism is,therefore, moribund. Infidelity is to be combated by the church; by thisonly can it be conquered. Nor is it hard to conquer. We should see itdisposed of very soon, if it ventured to put forth a system. But itsstrength lies in grumbling. It asks, like Pontius Pilate, What is truth?And goes away without waiting for an answer.

Burlington, N. J.

Rev. P. A. Treacy.

His Holiness the Pope having written a letter to the Mikado of Japanthanking him for the kindness extended by him to the Catholicmissionaries, his Majesty has replied in cordial terms, assuring theHoly Father that he would continue to afford them protection, andannouncing the despatch of a Japanese mission to the Vatican.

[Pg 74]

Priests and People Mourning.

The Great and Gifted Redemptorist Father, Rev. John O'Brien,Deceased—Beautiful and Appropriate Tributes to his Memory.

A pillar of the Lord's temple, a lustrous light of faith departed, aglorious soldier of the church militant on earth, is the sorrowful, butwithal grateful, subject of our memoir. Taken from this life suddenly inthe very bloom of a magnificent manhood, and from the career of hissaintly priesthood, fragrant with thousands of tests of the divinity ofhis ordination; aye, taken from the multitudes who so much needed hisspiritual guidance and support, may we well exclaim that the ways of ourAlmighty Father are wondrously mysterious and hidden beyond the ken ofour feeble understanding. The great and gifted young priest was truly ofthat royal race of him, Boroimhe, who was slaughtered by the hand of adesperate assassin, as he prayerfully knelt in his tent, on thebattle-field, offering thanks to the Lord of Hosts for victory over thehordes of northern barbarian invaders. He of Clontarf was king, soldierand saintly Christian. His descendant, transplanted in his youth, as ifby divine ordination, from Ireland to America, was soldier, Christian,king of hearts and saver of souls. Majestic in person, gentle indeportment, tender of heart, Rev. John O'Brien, C. SS. R. throughwondrous graces of mind and soul won upon all; brought the wayward intothe paths of holy places, and readily summoned sinners to repentance. Heachieved miracles, temporal as well as spiritual. It will be recollectedhow agreeably our whole community was startled by the corroboratedrecital, not so very long since, that the young daughter of Col. P. T.Hanley, of Boston Highlands, was healed of her chronic lame infirmitythrough the efficacy of his ministrations and her own pure prayers andstrong faith. How heroic he was in "apostolic zeal and saintly fervor,"like one of those heroic, primitive soldiers of the Cross, the martyrsof the catacombs, his reverend and eloquent panegyrist attests, when hereminds us how little terrors for him and his pious associates had themurderously-inclined orangemen and other bigots of Newfoundland, whenthese Fathers were there not long ago on the mission.

Rev. Father O'Brien had been for some years connected with theRedemptorists' Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, at BostonHighlands. He was in his thirty-sixth year at the time of his decease,which occurred suddenly on November 8th, from rheumatism of the heart,at Ilchester, Md., the parent house of the order. He had, only a fewdays previous to his death, closed a most arduous but successful missionin Philadelphia, where, but a short time previously, Rev. FatherMcGivern was taken with his fatal illness through overwork in hismissionary labors. The remains of Father O'Brien were conveyed here byMr. Cleary, one of our undertakers, and reposed in the main aislefronting the altar of the Tremont Street basilica, during the evening[Pg 75]and night of November 11, where many thousands visited them in tears,and rendered upward their silent and heartfelt prayers for the purposeswhich animated his sanctified soul. The emblems of mourning in theedifice, the varied and beautiful and artistic floral tributes, thegrief depicted on the features of young and old of the people, and manyother evidences, attested most unerringly the great bereavement whichthe Catholics of Boston sustain by his death.

Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (3)The Late Rev. John O'Brien, C. S.S. R.

On the morning of the 12th, at 9 o'clock, the Redemptorist Fathers'Church was thronged with a great congregation, and hundreds were unableto get in when the office of the dead was recited. Over fifty priestsparticipated in the sanctuary devotions. The clergymen offering up theSolemn High Mass of Requiem were as follows: Celebrant, Rev. FatherWelsh, C. SS. R.; deacon, Rev. Father Wynn, C. SS. R.; sub-deacon, Rev.Father Lutz, C. SS. R.; master of ceremonies, Rev. Father Licking, C.SS. R.; Father Licking also preached the panegyric. The Reverend Fathertook for his text:

Ecclesiastes xii. 5 and 7. "Man shall enter into the house ofhis eternity, and the mourners shall go roundabout in thestreet.... And the dust shall return to the earth from whenceit was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it."

[Pg 76]

He began most impressively and substantially as follows: "What shall Isay to you on this sad occasion? How shall I find words to express thesorrow and sadness, which I see depicted on your countenances? Thezealous, the learned, the whole-souled Redemptorist, Rev. John O'Brien,is laid low on the bier of death. A young warrior has fallen on thebattle-field of duty. A strong worker has sunk beside the vines he waspreparing for the heavenly kingdom.

"Oh, brother, if thou hadst not died in the prime of youth! If thouhadst not within thee the strength and energy to labor long andsuccessfully in thy sublime vocation! If thou hadst grown gray in theservice of God, I should congratulate you on this day, the day of thyespousals to Jesus Christ. I should say to thee: well done thou faithfulservant, thou hast labored long and well in the service of thy maker.Thou hast gone to thy well-merited reward." Father Licking continued atsome length in this strong strain of apostrophe to the name and memoryof his beloved brother, and then entered into reminiscences, in which hesaid, "I remember well when first I met the departed. It was in the year1870. We were then students at the preparatory college of theRedemptorist order. He was even then the picture of health, and a modelfor every student. Never was he known to infringe upon the slightestrule of the institute; never (and this is saying a great thing), neverdid he lose a single moment of time. Always at his books by day and bynight, even stealing from his well-merited rest some hours in order toacquire knowledge which he might employ in after years in the service ofGod and for the good of souls. So well pleased were his superiors withhis conduct, that they appointed him, together with the late lamentedRev. Father McGivern, overseer of the college boys in the absence oftheir superiors."

He received the habit of the order in 1875, with Rev. Fathers Beal andLicking. The panegyrist made most feeling allusion to the occasion, whenthe lamented dead took "the profession of those holy vows, thosetremendous vows, those eternal vows of poverty, chastity, andobedience.... Thank God, he kept those vows to the end."

Father O'Brien was next sent to the Redemptorist Theological Seminary ofIlchester, Md., to further pursue the great studies that fitted him forhis calling.

"It often required an express command of his superiors to take him fromhis books that his body might not succumb, and the mind gain thenecessary rest. So exact was he in all his ways, that we, his fellowstudents, could, at any hour of the day, point out the very spot wherehe might be found, either going through the Way of the Cross, or prayingbefore the Blessed Sacrament, or reciting his rosary, or studying at hisbooks. Is it a wonder, then, that God should allow him to die on a spotwhich had so often been the witness of so much piety and so many of hisgood works."

He was ordained priest in 1880, and the following February found him atthe Boston Highlands in the Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help. Herehe administered for the first time the Sacrament of Penance; here hepreached from the pulpit of his panegyrist his first sermon; here heentered upon "that career of zeal and usefulness[Pg 77] which made his nameproverbial in every family of the parish." ... "He possessed a powerfuland comprehensive mind, a prodigious memory, and a most fertileimagination; and, above all, a most generous spirit and tender heart.Graced besides with every form of manly beauty, strength and vigor, of apowerful frame, nothing seemed wanting to him. It might be said of himas the poet sang of the ancient hero:

"'He was a combination and a form indeed,
Where God did seem to set his very seal,
To give the world the picture of a man.'"

Father Licking dwelt at length upon the great extent of the work done inthe parish by the beloved deceased. "Every interest in the large parishreceived his particular attention." All were participants of his zealand charity. In 1883 he passed through his second novitiate after aretirement of six months, which fully equipped him for the missions."And now his soul rejoiced, indeed, in the Lord."

"It is related," said the preacher, "of a Southern officer, that when hereturned from a successful expedition, the first question he put to hisgeneral always was: 'Where is the next blow to be struck? Send methere!' So it was with the young warrior of the Cross, whose death wemourn. His zeal knew no bounds except those of obedience. Hardly had onemission been finished when he hastened to another.... North, South, Eastand West were witnesses of his Apostolic zeal and saintly fervor. Thecold weather, the fierce storms, and still fiercer spirits of hostilesects in Newfoundland, had not terrors enough to deter him, and thehottest sun of July and August could not draw from him a single word ofcomplaint, when engaged in arduous task of giving retreats. And thoughcomparatively a young man, when only four years had elapsed since hisordination, his superiors trusting in his zeal, his prudence, and hiswisdom, selected him, from out of many, to the important office ofgiving retreats to the clergy of the land." ... "I see among the floraltributes one bearing the letters 'Apostolic Zeal.' It shows me that youhave understood his spirit."

In the panegyrist's recital it was told that six weeks before his deathhe was returning from missions in Pennsylvania. He saw in New York thevery Rev. Provincial, who told him that the Fathers at work on themissions at Philadelphia were becoming exhausted, and that even then theRev. Father McGivern was on a dying bed there. Father O'Brien stood up,and stretching himself to the full height of his massive frame, heexclaimed, "Look at me! Am I not a strong man? Send me. I'll do the workfor them!" "Does it not remind you of the brave general who said, 'Whereis the next blow to be struck. Send me there.'" When that, his lastmission, closed, the Fathers had heard thirty-five hundred confessions,and he retired to Ilchester for a cursory visit, where the joy heexperienced in meeting his old Alma Mater superiors was beyonddescription. While there he remarked: "Father, this would be a nice,quiet and holy place to die in." That night he was attacked with thefatal malady. His limbs became racked with pain. The rheumatism reachedhis great heart, and he is found at five o'clock in the morninginsensible. The last[Pg 78] sacraments were administered, and at seven o'clockhis noble soul took its flight from its mortal abode.

With an eloquent peroration, Rev. Father Licking closed by craving theprayers of the faithful for the departed hero of the Cross.

The pathetic musical services were rendered by the regular choir of thechurch, and comprised the Gregorian Requiem Mass, Miss Nellie M.McGowan, organist. The twelve pall-bearers were Colonel P. T. Hanley,Frank Ford, John J. Kennedy, M. H. Farrell, Thomas Kelly, E. J. Lynch,James McCormack, Thomas O'Leary, James B. Hand, William S. McGowan, JohnReardon and Timothy McCarthy. Mount Calvary Cemetery was the placeselected for the interment. In His Grace Archbishop Williams' vault thebody will repose until the completion of work now in progress on a lotspecially intended for Father O'Brien. It is estimated that the servicesat the church were attended by over twenty-five hundred people, and thefuneral was likewise largely attended. Every kind attention was paid tohis bereaved mother, father, and sister, who came on here from New YorkState.

SLEEP ON.

In Memory of Father John O'Brien, C. SS. R.

How short is life, a flitting cloud
Before the blast.
The storm wind roars, the thunder rolls
Then, peace at last.

Oh! Brother, life to thee was short;
A summer's morn
A floweret blooming in the sun,
Then, left forlorn.

Thy heart was fired with zealous love,
Thy courage high.
But list! Thy Captain softly calls
And thou must die.

No more thou'lt lead His forces on
To victory grand;
No more thou'lt join with beating heart
That glorious band.

Thou'rt fallen on the battle field
With burnished arms.
O soldier, sleep in peace, secure
From war's alarms.

O glorious life! Thy heart was free
From aught of earth,
From glittering gold, or bauble fair
Of little worth.

Thy gaze was fixed on Heaven's courts,
Thy heart's desire
On Calvary's top where Jesus burnt
In love's fierce fire.

O noble champion of the cross,
Thy course is run.
Like heaven's light, thy soul returns
To heaven's Sun.

O beauteous death! No worldly grief
Is blustering there,
The Church's voice, her tender plaint
Scents all the air.

How sweet to die, when voice of prayer
Doth rend the skies.
Released from earth, the soul ascends
In glad surprise.

And what is left? The house of clay
Where dwelt the soul.
That temple grand, where hymns to God
Did often roll.

Ah! guard it well, its blessed walls
Will rise again.
Again the soul in heaven will chant
Its glad refrain.

His tomb will blossom fair with flowers—
A mother's tears.
In memory's halls, his name will live
Through countless years.

Sleep on, brave soldier, sleep
And take thy rest.
Like John thou sleepest now
On Jesus' breast.

[Pg 79]

Crown and Crescent.

A great event was witnessed on the evening of Monday, November 23, whenthe new electric crown and crescent, which adorn the statue of Our Ladyon the dome of the university, were lit up for the first time. There,lifted high in the air—two hundred feet above the ground—the grand,colossal figure of the Mother of God appeared amid the darkness of thenight in a blaze of light, with its diadem of twelve electric stars, andunder its feet the crescent moon formed of twenty-seven electric lights.Truly, it was a grand sight; and one, which, though it is becomingfamiliar to the inmates of Notre Dame, must ever strike the beholderwith awe and reverence, realizing as it does, the most perfectexpression, in a material representation, of the prophetic declarationof Holy Writ: And there appeared a great wonder in heaven: a womanclothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head acrown of twelve stars.

It must, indeed, have been an inspiration, or a prophetic foresight ofthe great advance soon to be made in the domain of science, that, a fewyears ago, caused the venerable founder of Notre Dame to conceive thegrand idea which to-day we see so perfectly realized. In 1879, when thenew Notre Dame was being raised upon the ruins of the old, comparativelylittle progress had as yet been made in electric lighting. Inparticular, the great problem of the minute subdivision of the lightremained unsolved. Edison had not then begun his experiments, and theincandescent light was not even dreamed of. To employ the arc lightaround the statue was out of the question, not only because thenecessary appliances would detract from the beauty of the figure, butalso on account of the daily attention which the lamps would require.

But the idea had taken possession of the mind of Very Rev. Father Sorin,and was tenaciously clung to, in spite of discouraging report throughthe years that followed, until, at length, the success of subsequentexperiments, and the invention of incandescent electric lighting,revealed the complete practicability of carrying out the grand design ofthe venerable founder.

Now, twelve of the Edison incandescent lamps encircle the head of thestatue, while at the base are three semi-circles of nine lamps in each,which form the crescent moon. These, together with the lights in thehalls of the college, are fed with the electric current by a powerfuldynamo, situated in the rear of the building. Thus the visitor to NotreDame, as he comes up the avenue at night, or the wayfarer for milesaround, can realize and revere that glorious tribute to the Queen ofHeaven, the Protectress of Notre Dame, as he sees her figure surroundedwith its halo of light, typifying the watchful care she constantlyexercises, by night as well as by day, over the inmates of this home ofreligion and science, which has been specially dedicated to her honor.

Notre Dame (Ia.) Scholastic.

[Pg 80]

Four Thousand Years.

Four thousand years earth waited,
Four thousand years men prayed,
Four thousand years the nations sighed,
That their King delayed.

The prophets told His coming,
The saintly for Him sighed,
And the Star of the Babe of Bethlehem
Shone o'er them when they died.

Their faces toward the future,
They longed to hail the light,
That in after centuries
Would rise on Christmas nights.

But still the Saviour tarried
In His Father's home,
And the nations wept and wondered why
The promised had not come.

At last earth's prayer was granted,
And God was a child of earth,
And a thousand angels chanted
The lowly midnight birth.

Ah! Bethlehem was grander
That hour, than Paradise;
And the light of earth, that night, eclipsed
The splendors of the skies.

Abram J. Ryan.

Abolishing Barmaids.

A bill "for the Abolition of Barmaids" sounds like a joke from "Alice inWonderland," or from one of Mr. Gilbert's burlesques. Nevertheless it isa serious legislative proposal now pending before the Parliament ofVictoria. It is actually in print, and makes it penal for any keeper ofa public house to employ women behind the counter. Of course, theadvocates of this astonishing idea have their arguments. They do not goquite as far as Sir Wilfrid Lawson, who would disestablish not onlybarmaids, but barmen and bars; they would not shut up all dram-shops;but they would make them as dreary as possible, so as to repelimpressionable young men. In Gothenburg the spirit-drinker is served bya policeman, who keeps an eagle eye upon him that he may know him again,and refuse him a second glass if he asks for it before a certaininterval has expired. The Victorian reformers have a corresponding ideaof diminishing the attractions of intoxication by surrounding theinitial stages with repellent rather than enticing accessories. Insteadof the smiling Hebes who have fascinated the golden youth of the colony,men will serve as tapsters, and without note or comment hand across thecounter the required draught. The effect may be considerable, as maledrinkers do undoubtedly take a delight in the pleasant looks and brighttalk of the young ladies who, as the French say, "preside" at theseestablishments. But should not the Victorian apostles of abstinence gofurther? It is well to replace girls by men, and thus subdue the bar tomasculine dullness; but could not the Act of Parliament go on to declarethat none save plain, grim-visaged males should be tolerated asassistants? The most inveterate toper might hesitate to enter twice ifhe were always met by the ugly aspect of some dark, forbiddingcountenance. A kind of competition might take[Pg 81] place for the posts,which might be given to the most repulsive people the Government couldselect. Fearful squint would be at a premium; scowls would be valuedaccording to their blackness and depth; a ghastly grin would bedesirable; while a general cadaverousness might be utilized assuggesting to drunkards the probable end of their career. The gods ofOlympus laughed loudly when the swart, ungainly Vulcan for once replacedHebe as their cup-bearer; but it would be no joke for the young idlersof Melbourne to find stern, grim men frowning over the counters whereonce they were received with "nods and becks and wreathed smiles."

Christianity in China.

The arrangement which the Pope has made with the Emperor of Chinapromises to be productive of the happiest results, and to open theFlowery Kingdom fully to the spread of the gospel. For many years theFrench assumed the position of protectors of Christian missionaries inbarbarous countries. The first expedition to Annam was avowedly sent toput an end to the murders of missionaries and converts so frequent inthat country; and for a time it did serve to put a check on the ferocityof government and people. In the treaty of Tienstin it was stipulatedthat the French Government should have the right to protect missionariesin China. For a time that seemed to work well. But the many complaintsmade through the French consuls, and the punishments inflicted onMandarins at their demand, served to irritate the Mandarins and thepopulace. The indiscretion of some French missionaries, who interposedto protect converts not always deserving of protection, and who flauntedthe flag of France in the faces of the Mandarins in their own courts,increased the irritation. Some of the missionaries boasted also inletters, which the Chinese saw when published, of the respect for Francewhich they instilled into their converts. The consequence was, that,although the missionaries are from all nations, the Chinese learned toregard them as French; and when the French made the late war on China,to regard all Chinese Christians as traitors. Formerly the governmentpersecuted the Christians. Latterly Chinese mobs massacred theChristians and destroyed their churches, convents, schools, etc., andthe French scarcely made an effort to protect them even in Tonquin. TheHoly Father, in the letter which we published some time ago, assured theEmperor that the missionaries who are of all nations are of no politicsand desire only to preach the Christian religion, and begged the Emperorto protect them. It has now been arranged that the Pope shall hereafterbe represented by a Legate at Pekin to whom the rank, etc., of anambassador will be given, and who will receive any complaints themissionaries may have to make and will seek redress for them. Thus theinterests of religion will, in the minds of the Chinese, be entirelydissociated from the interests of all foreign countries, and thefeelings which now prevail will subside in[Pg 82] time. The French Governmentinfidel, though it is, will not like, it is thought, to be thus putaside; but if the missionaries cease to appeal to its agents it will bepowerless.

"Faro's Daughters."

There was plenty of gambling in London at the end of the last century,and ladies took a prominent part in it. Faro was then a favorite game,and ladies who were in the habit of keeping a bank used to be called"Faro's Daughters." Of these, Lady Archer and Lady Buckinghamshire werethe most notorious, and Mrs. Sturt, Mrs. Hobart, and Mrs. Concannon werealso noted gamblers. The usual method was for some great lady to give anentertainment at which faro was played, when the lady who took the bankgave her £25 towards the expenses. St. James's Square was the scene ofmany of these revels. The Times of April 2, 1794, stated that "one ofthe Faro Banks in St. James's Square lost £7000 last year by bad debts."The same number tells us that "Lady Buckinghamshire, Mrs. Sturt, andMrs. Concannon alternately divide the beau-monde at their respectivehouses. Instead of having two different hot suppers, at one and three inthe morning, the Faro Banks will now scarcely afford bread and cheeseand porter." The lady gamblers were considerably alarmed at certainhints they received, that they would be prosecuted; and in 1796 theTimes said, "We state it as a fact, within our own knowledge, that twoladies of fashion, who keep open houses for gaming at the West End ofthe Town, have lately paid large douceurs to ward off the hand ofjustice." But in the following year Lady Buckinghamshire, Lady ElizabethLutterell, and Mrs. Sturt were each fined £50 for playing faro at thehouse of the first named. The evidence proved that the "defendants hadgaming parties at their different houses by rotation," and that theyplayed until four or five in the morning. The fines seemed light enough,for an extract from the Times in the same year says:—"The expense ofentertainments at the Gaming House of the highest class, in St. James'sSquare, during the eight months of last season, has been said to exceed6,000 guineas! What must be the profits to afford such a profusion?" Inmodern times backgammon is not usually associated with very desperategambling; but a captain in the guards is said to have lost thirteenthousand guineas at that game at one sitting in 1796. He revengedhimself, however, by winning forty-five thousand guineas at billiards ina single night shortly afterwards.—Saturday Review.

Never use water that has stood in a lead pipe over night. Not less thana wooden bucketful should be allowed to run.[Pg 83]

Juvenile Department.

A CHILD'S DAY.

When I was a little child
It was always golden weather.
My days stretched out so long
From rise to set of sun,
I sang and danced and smiled—
My light heart like a feather—
From morn to even-song;
But the child's days are done.

I used to wake with the birds—
The little birds wake early,
For the sunshine leaps and plays
On the mother's head and wing;
And the clouds were white as curds;
The apple trees stood pearly;
I always think of the child's days
As one unending spring.

I knew where all flowers grew.
I used to lie in the meadow
Ere reaping-time and mowing-time
And carting home the hay.
And, oh, the skies were blue!
Oh, drifting light and shadow!
It was another time and clime—
The little child's sweet day.

And in the long days waning
The skies grew rose and amber
And palest green and gold,
With a moon's white flame.
And if came wind and raining,
Gray hours I don't remember;
Nor how the warm year waxed cold,
And deathly autumn came.

Only of that young time
The bright things I remember:
How orchard bows were laden red,
And blackberries so brave
Came ere the frost and rime—
Ere the dreary, dark November,
With dripping black boughs overhead,
And dead leaves on a grave.

The years have come and gone,
And brought me many a pleasure,
And many a gift and gain
From near and from afar,
And dear work gladly done,
And dear love without measure,
And sunshine after rain,
And in the night a star.

The years have come and gone,
And one hath brought me sorrow;
Yet I shall sing to ease my pain
For the hours I must stay.
They are passing one by one,
And I wait with hope the morrow;
But indeed I am not fain
Of a long, long day.

It is well for a little child
Whose heart is blithe and merry
To find too short its golden day—
Long morn and afternoon.
So many flowers grow wild,
And many a fruit and berry:
Long day, too short for work and play,—
The night comes too soon.

It was well for that little child;
But its day is gone forever,
And a wounded heart will ache
In the sunlight gold and gay.
Oh, the night is cool and mild
To all things that smart with fever!
The older heart had time to break
In the little child's long day.

Katharine Tynan, in Merry England.

When little Willie L. first heard the braying of a mule in the South, hewas greatly frightened; but, after thinking a minute, he smiled at hisfear, saying, "Mamma, just hear that poor horse with thewhooping-cough!"

A Little grammar is a dangerous thing: "Johnny, be a good boy, and Iwill take you to the circus next year."—"Take me now, pa; the circus isin the present tents."[Pg 84]

THE CHRISTMAS TURKEY.

Grandfather Patrick lived a long time ago; in the days when all thegrandfathers wore white wigs with little tails sticking out behind.

One day he went into the back yard where an old Turkey Gobbler lived,and said to him:

"Mr. Turkey Gobbler: Next week comes Christmas and I want you to comeinto the house with me, and help us have a good time. You are such afine, fat fowl, I am sure you will be just the one we want."

Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (4)

Mr. Turkey Gobbler was a vain bird, and when he heard GrandfatherPatrick say this, he spread out his tail, stuck up his feathers, andstretched his wings down to the ground. Then he said: "Yes, I know I ama fine fowl, and I want to get away from this low, mean yard, into thegrand house, among grand people, where I think I belong."

"And so you shall," said Grandfather Patrick. "You shall leave this coldyard and come in to the stove where it is warm. You shall[Pg 85] come to thetable with us all on Christmas Day. You shall be at the head of thetable, and the boys and girls will be glad to see you, and they will sayhow fat you are, and how good you are, and how they wish they could haveyou at the table every day."

Mr. Turkey Gobbler was so pleased at all this that he went into thehouse with Grandfather Patrick and Aunt Bridget.

And all the little chickens looked on, and they said to each other: "Whycannot we go into the grand house, and come to the table the same as Mr.Turkey Gobbler? We are just as fine as he."

"Be patient," said Grandfather Patrick; "your time will come."

THE CHRISTMAS STOCKING.

"Dear Santa Claus," wrote
little Will in letters truly
shocking, "I's been a good
boy, so please fill a heapen
up this stocking. I want
a drum to make pa sick
and drive my mamma cra-
zy. I want a doggie I can
kick so he will not get
lazy. I want a powder
gun to shoot right at my
sister Annie, and a big
trumpet I can toot just
awful loud at granny. I
want a dreffle big false
face to scare in fits our ba-
by. I want a pony I can
race around the parlor,
maybe. I want a little
hatchet, too, so I can do
some chopping upon our
grand piano new, when
mamma goes a-shopping.
I want a nice hard rub-
ber ball to smash all
into flinders, the
great big mirror
in the hall an'
lots an' lots of
winders. An'
candy that'll
make me
sick, so ma
all night will
hold me an'
make pa get the
doctor quick an'
never try to scold
me. An' Santa Claus,
if pa says I'm naughty
it's a story. Jus' say
if she whips me I'll
die an' surely go to
glory."

THE CHRISTMAS CRIB.

[Pg 86]

From the French of J. Grange, by Th. Xr. K.

There still subsist, in certain provinces of France, old religiouscustoms which are full of charming simplicity. May they endure and everhold out against the icy breath of skepticism, the cold rules of thebeautiful, and the wearisome level of uniformity.

In the churches of Limousin, between Christmas and the Purification, isfound a rustic monument called crib. The crib is generally a straw hut,thatched with branches of holly and pine; on these branches arescattered little patches of white wadding, which look like snowflakes.Inside the house, on a bed of straw, lies an Infant Jesus made of wax.All these Infants look alike and are charming; they have blond hair,blue eyes, pink cheeks, and a silk or brocade gown, with gold and silverspangles. To the right of the Child is the Blessed Virgin; to the left,St. Joseph. These are of wax or even of colored pasteboard. A littlebehind the Holy Family, and forming two distinct groups, may be seen thekings and the shepherds. The shepherds are like peasants of that part ofthe country, with long hair, big felt hats, and blue drugget vests. Mostof them carry in their hands, or in baskets, dairy or farmpresents,—fruits, eggs, honey-comb, a pair of doves. As for the kings,they are superbly clothed in long gowns, whose trail is carried bydwarfs. One of them, called the king of Ethiopia, is black and has kinkyhair.

In certain cribs, simplicity and exactness are pushed to such lengths,as to represent the ox and the ass, with the rack full of hay. There maybe also seen, but less frequently, in the kings' group, camels anddromedaries, covered with rich harness, and led by the bridle by slaves.If you want to do things right and leave nothing out, you must skilfullyarrange above the crib a yellow-colored glass in which burns a flame,which represents the star that the Magi perceived and which stopped overthe grotto at Bethlehem. Candles and tapers burn before the crib, whichis surrounded by some pious women, and a number of children, who nevergrow weary of admiring the Holy Family and its brilliant retinue.

I was one day in a church where there was one of these cribs. I washidden by a column and was a witness, without any wish of mine, of theimpressions which the little monument made on visitors.

A gentleman, a stranger in the locality, entered the church with a younglady, about eighteen years of age, who seemed to be his daughter. Thegentleman took off his hat, put on a smoking cap, and began to visit thechurch with as much carelessness of demeanor as though it were aprovincial museum. The young lady dipped the tips of her fingers in theholy water, sped through a short prayer, and hastened to rejoin herfather, with whom she began to chat and laugh.

When they came in front of the crib, the father adjusted hiseye-glasses, the daughter took her opera-glass, and for a few minutesthey gazed on this scene, new to them.[Pg 87]

After gazing a little while, the gentleman shrugged his shoulders andasked:

"What are all those dolls?"

"Papa," replied the daughter, "that is the Stable of Bethlehem, and asimple representation of the birth of Jesus Christ."

"Simple?" exclaimed the father, "you're indulgent to-day, Azémia; youshould say grotesque and buffoonish; that it should be possible to pushbad taste so far! It is not enough that their mysteries areincomprehensible; here they're trying to make them ridiculous!"

"Goodness, papa," said the young lady; "just think! for the commonpeople and peasants"—

"I tell you, Azémia, that it is absurd and shocking, and that thepeasants and the natives themselves must laugh at it. Let us go! I feelmyself catching cold here, and dinner must be ready."

They had hardly left the church, when a lady entered with a charmingfour-year-old baby. The child ran to the crib where the mother joinedhim after a prayer which seemed to me less summary and more serious thanthat which the young lady had said.

"Oh! mamma," the child said half aloud; "look at the little Jesus, andthe Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph. See the kings and the shepherds. Oh!mamma, see the star the kings followed and that stopped over the Stableof Bethlehem."

And the child stood on tip-toe and looked with wide-open eyes.

"Mamma," he went on, "see the ass and the ox that were in the stablewhen the little Jesus came into the world. Oh! the beautiful gray ass!and that ox that is all red; it looks like an ox for sure, like those inthe fields. Say, little mother, could I throw a kiss to little Jesus?"

And the child, putting his finger-tips to his lips, made a delightfullynaive salute.

The mother silently kissed her child, and it seemed to me that she wasweeping.

"Now, darling," she said, "now that you've seen everything, say to thelittle Jesus the prayer you say every night before going to bed."

The child seemed to hesitate.

"You see there is nobody here but the good God and us; then you can sayit low."

"My God," said the child; "I love you. Keep me during my sleep; keeplittle father and little mother too, good papa and good mamma, my sisterMary, who is at boarding-school, and all my relatives, living and dead.Jesus, Mary, Joseph, I give you my heart."

The mother and the child left. And I who had heard these things, Ithought of the sacred texts:—

"Blessed are the pure of heart, for they shall see God."

"I thank Thee, Father, because Thou hast hidden these things from thewise and prudent, and hast revealed them to the little ones."

"Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise."[Pg 88]

CHRISTMAS GIFTS FOR THE BOYS.

"Please suggest a suitable Christmas present for a boy of nine."

The above, addressed to the New York Sun, elicited the followingreply, which may be read with much profit by all parents of younghopefuls.

If your nine-year-old has developed any mechanical taste, gratify it bya small kit of tools. The chests of cheap tools sold in the stores arenot good for much. Select a few tools of good quality at a hardwarestore, and put a substantial work bench, such as carpenters use, in theplay room. Never mind an occasional cut finger.

Pet animals or birds, which may be found in great variety in the birdfanciers' stores, always delight the boys. But city boys do not alwayshave room to keep them.

An aquarium of moderate dimensions, stocked with half a dozen varietiesof fish, turtles, snails, seaweed, etc., is a very useful andinteresting present for any boy or girl. In the spring add a fewpollywogs, and watch them in their evolution into frogs. You will beinterested in the process yourself.

What do you say to a microscope?

If your boy lacks muscular development for his years, get him a set ofapparatus for parlor gymnastics. He will have lots of fun and it will dohim good. A bicycle isn't bad either.

If he hasn't learned to skate yet it is time to start in. Get him a goodpair of steel runners.

Of course he has a sled?

Perhaps he has all of the things we mention. If so, get the housemaid,or some other person whom he would not suspect, to ask him what he wouldlike best for Christmas, and get that if it is within the bounds ofreason.

Throw in a book. There are plenty of them.

Don't give him a toy pistol.

ROBIN REDBREAST.

All over Great Britain and Ireland the redbreast's nest is spared, whilethose of other birds are robbed without ceremony; and his life isequally sacred. No schoolboy who has ever killed a robin can forget thedire remorse and fear that followed the deed. And little wonder, forterrible are the punishments said to overtake those who persecute thislittle bird. Generally such a crime is believed to be expiated by thedeath of a friend. Sometimes the punishment is more trivial. In someparts of England it is believed that even the weasel and the wildcatwill spare him.

In Brittany, the native place of the legend, it is needless to say, theredbreast is thoroughly popular, and his life and nest are bothrespected. In Cornouaille the people say he will live till the day ofjudgment, and every year will make some young women rich and happy.[Pg 89] Insome parts of England and Scotland his appearance is considered an omenof death. In Northamptonshire he is said to tap three times at thewindow of a dying person's room. In the Haute Marne district of Francehe is also thought a bird of ill omen, and is called Beznet—meaning"the evil eye."

In Central Europe, where there is also no trace of a passion legendattached to the redbreast, he is held none the less sacred. Mischief issure to follow the violator of his nest. But by far the most prevalentbelief, and especially in Germany, is that the man who injures aredbreast or its nest will have his house struck by lightning, and thata redbreast's nest near a house will protect it from lightning.

These robins are very rarely seen on this side of the Atlantic. Severalof them were brought to this country a few weeks ago from Larne, countyAntrim, Ireland, and were landed in New York.

They are the tamest of all the birds in the British Isles, and are utterstrangers to the timidity which our robin displays toward man. At thesame time they are not pert and presumptuous like the sparrow, but seemto feel that their innocent confidence in man has gained for themimmunity from the danger of being stoned or shot at, to which nearlyevery other bird is subjected to without compunction. The mostmischievous schoolboy in those countries never thinks of throwing astone at a robin, although he regards any other bird as an entirelyproper object for his aim. Like every other songster of the featheredtribe, their age depends on how old they are when captured. If takenfrom the nest they will live for years in a cage, but should they haveenjoyed some years of freedom they pine away soon, and in such casesrefuse to sing. The nest bird, however, sings in captivity, though itsnotes might lack the sweetness and duration of the free bird. Inappearance the little robin bears scarcely any resemblance to itsnamesake of this continent, being much smaller in size, and having abreast of far rosier hue.

FOOLISH GIRLS.

While the great majority of our girls are sensible and wise, not a feware silly victims of sensational story papers. Their minds becomecorrupted, and their imaginations attain an unhealthy development. Theypicture to themselves an ideal hero, and easily fall victims todesigning knaves, who induce them to elope. The spice of romance in anelopement takes their fancy, and they leave the homes of happy childhoodto wander in the paths of pleasure. It has been well remarked thatnothing good is ever heard of a girl who elopes. Now and then shefigures in the divorce courts either as plaintiff or defendant, butordinarily the world moves on, and leaves her to her fate. Occasionallythe police records give a fragment of her life when the heyday of heryouth and life has fled, and the man with whom she has eloped has takento beating her in order to get up an appetite for breakfast. Here andthere the workhouse or charitable home opens its doors to receive her,when she wearies of the life she gladly assumed, and is too proud to begfor forgiveness at home.

LITTLE QUEEN PET AND HER KINGDOM.

[Pg 90]

There was once a little queen who was born to reign over a great richkingdom called Goldenlands. She had twelve nurses and a hundred andfifty beautiful names: only unfortunately on the day of the christeningthere was so much confusion and excitement that all the names were lostas they fell out of the bishop's mouth. Nobody saw where they vanishedto, and as nobody could find them, the poor little baby had to return tothe palace nursery without anything to be called by. They could notchristen her over again, so the king offered a reward to the person whoshould discover the princess's names within the next fifteen years.Every one cried "Poor pet, poor pet!" over the nameless baby, who soonbecame known as the Princess Pet. But her father and mother took theaccident so much to heart that they both died soon after.

Of course, little Pet was considered too young to manage the affairs ofher own kingdom, and so she had a great, powerful Government to do itfor her. This Government was a most peculiar monster, with nine hundredand ninety-nine heads and scarcely any heart; and when anything was tobe decided upon, all the heads had to be laid together, so that it tooka long time to make up its mind. It was not at all good to the kingdom,but little Pet did not know anything about that, as she was kept away inher splendid nursery, with all her nurses watching her, while she playedwith the most wonderful toys. Sometimes she was taken out to walk in thegardens, with three nurses holding a parasol over her head, a pagecarrying her embroidered train, three nurses walking before, fanningher, and six nurses following behind; but she never had any playfellows,and nothing ever happened at all different from everything else. Theonly variety in her life was made by startling sounds, which often cameechoing to the nursery, of the gate-bell of the palace ringing loudly.

"Why does the bell ring so?" little Pet would cry, and the nurses wouldanswer:

"Oh, it is only the poor!"

"Who are the poor?" asked Pet.

"People who are born to torment respectable folks!" said the head nurse.

"They must be very naughty people!" lisped Pet, and went on with herplay.

When Pet grew a little older she became very tired of dolls andskipping-ropes, and she really did not know what to do with herself; soone day, when all the nurses had gone down to dinner at the same time,she escaped from her nursery and tripped down the passages, peering intothe corners on every side. After wandering about a long time she came toa staircase, and descending it very quickly she reached a suite ofbeautiful rooms which had been occupied by her mother. They remainedjust as the good queen had left them; even the faded roses were turninginto dust in the jars. Pet was walking through the rooms very soberly,peering at, and touching everything, when she[Pg 91] heard a queer littlesound of moaning and whispering and complaining, which came like littlepiping gusts of wind from somewhere or other.

"Fiss-whiss, whiss, whiss, whiss!" went the little whispers; and "Ah!"and "Ai!" and "Oh!" came puffing after them, like the strangest littlesighs.

"Oh, dear, what can it be?" thought Pet, standing in the middle of theroom and gazing all round. "I declare I do think it is coming out of thewardrobe!"

An ancient carved wardrobe extended all along one side of the room, andindeed the little sounds seemed to be whistling out through its chinksand keyholes. Pet walked up to it rather timidly; but taking courage,put her ear to the lock. Then she heard distinctly:

"Here we hang in a row,
In a row!
And we ought to have been given
To the poor long ago!"

And besides this strange complaint she caught other little bits grumblesfloating about, such as

"Fiss, whiss, whiss!
Did ever I think
I should have come to this?"

And:

"Alack, and well-a-day!
Will nobody come
To take us away?"

As soon as she had recovered from her amazement, Pet opened thewardrobe, and there she saw a long row of gowns, hanging in all sorts ofdespondent attitudes, some hooked up by their sleeves, others caught bythe waist with their bodies doubled together.

"Here is somebody at last, thank goodness!" cried a dark-brown silkwhich was greatly crumpled, and looked very uncomfortable hanging up byits shoulder.

"Oh, gowns, gowns!" cried Pet, staring at these strange grumblers withher round, blue eyes, "whatever do you want?"

"Want?" cried the brown silk; "why, of course, to be taken out andgiven to the poor."

"The poor again!" cried Pet. "Who can these poor be at all, I wonder?"

"People who cannot buy clothing enough for themselves," said the brownsilk. "When your dear mother was alive she always gave her old gowns tothe poor. Only think how nice I should be for the respectable mother ofa family to go to church in on Sundays, instead of being rumpled in hereout of the daylight with the moths eating me."

"And I," cried a pink muslin, "what a pretty holiday frock I should makefor the industrious young school-mistress who supports her poorgrandfather and grandmother."

"And I! and I! and I!" shrieked many little rustling voices, eachdescribing the possible usefulness of a particular gown.

"Yes! we should all turn to account," continued the brown silk,[Pg 92] "allexcept, perhaps, one or two very grand, stiff old fogies in velvet andbrocade and cloth-of-gold; and even these might be cut up into jacketsfor the old clown who tumbles on the village green for the children'samusem*nt."

"My breath is quite taken away," cried Pet. "I shall certainly see thatyou are all taken out and given to the poor immediately."

"She is her mother's daughter after all;" said the brown silk,triumphantly; and Pet closed the door upon a chorus of little murmurs ofsatisfaction from the imprisoned gowns.

"This is a very curious adventure," thought the little queen, as shetrotted on, fancying she saw faces grinning at her out of the furnitureand down from the ceiling; and then she stopped again, quite sure sheheard very peculiar sounds coming out of an antique bureau which stoodin a corner. After her conversation with the gowns this did not surpriseher much at all, and she put her ear to the keyhole at once.

"Clink! Clink!
What do you think?
Here we are
Shut up in a drawer,"

cried the queer little voices coming out of the bureau.

"What can this be about, I wonder?" said Pet, and turning the key,peeped in. There she beheld a whole heap of gold and silver lying in thedepths of the bureau, all the guineas and shillings hopping about andclinking against each other and singing:

"Take us out
And give us about,
And then we shall do
Some good, no doubt!"

"Why, what do you want to get out for?" asked Pet, looking down at them.

"To help the poor, of course!" said the money. "We were put in here bythe good queen, your mother, and saved up for the poor who deserve to beassisted. But now every one has forgotten us, and we are rusting awaywhile there is so much distress in the kingdom."

"Well," said Pet, "I shall see to your case; for I promise you I amgoing to know more about these wonderful poor."

She shut up the bureau, and went on further exploring the rooms, and nowyou may be pretty sure her ears were wide open for every sound. It wasnot long before she heard a creaking and squeaking that came from alarge wicker-basket which was twisting about in the most discontentedmanner.

"Once on a time I was filled with bread,
But now I stand as if I were dead,"

mourned the basket.

"And why were you filled with bread?" asked Pet.

"Your mother used to fill me," squeaked the basket, "and give the breadout of me to feed the poor."

"Why! do you mean to say that the poor have no bread to eat?"[Pg 93] askedPet. "That is really a most dreadful thing. I must speak to myGovernment about these poor immediately. Whatever my mother did musthave been perfectly right at all events, and I shall do the same!"

And off she went back towards her nursery, meeting all her twelve nursesflying along the corridors to look for her.

"Go directly and tell my Government that I want to speak to it," saidQueen Pet, quite grandly; and she was brought down to the great CouncilChamber.

"Your Majesty has had too much plum-pudding and a bad dream afterwards!"said the Government when Pet had told the whole story about the gowns,and the money, and the bread-basket, and the poor; and then theGovernment took a pinch of snuff and sent Queen Pet back to her nursery.

The next day, when all the nurses had gone to their dinner again, Petwas leaning out of her nursery window, with her two elbows on the sillsand her face between her hands, and she was gazing down on the charminggardens below, and away off over the fields and hills of her beautifulkingdom of Goldenlands. "Where do the poor live, I wonder?" she thought;"and I wonder what they are like? Oh, that I could be a good queen likemy mother, and be of use to my people! How I wish that I had a ladder toreach down into the garden, and then I could run away all over mykingdom and find things out for myself."

Just as she thought thus an exquisite butterfly perched on her fingerand said gaily,—

"A thousand spiders
All weaving in a row,
Can weave you a ladder
To fit your little toe."

"Can they, indeed?" cried Pet; "and are you acquainted with thespiders?"

"I should think so, indeed," said the butterfly; "I am engaged to bemarried to a spider; I have been engaged ever since I was acaterpillar."

"Well, just ask them to be so good!" said Pet, and away flew thebutterfly, coming back in a moment with a whole cloud of spidersfollowing her.

"Be as quick as you can, please, lest my nurses should come back fromdinner," said Pet, as the spiders worked away. "Fortunately they haveall good appetites, and cannot bear to leave table without their sixhelpings of pudding."

The ladder being finished, Pet tripped down it into the garden, whereshe was hidden at once in a wilderness of roses, out of which she madeher way through a wood, and across a stream quite far into the opencountry of her kingdom.

She was running very fast, with her head down, when she heard a stepfollowing her, and a voice speaking to her, and looking round, saw avery extraordinary person indeed. He was very tall and all made of[Pg 94]loose, clanking bones; he carried a scythe in one hand, and an hourglassin the other, and he had a pleasant voice, which made Pet not so muchafraid of him as she otherwise might have been.

"It is no use trying to run away from me," said this person. "Besides, Iwish to do you a good turn. My name is Time."

Pet dropped a trembling courtesy.

"You need not be afraid of me," continued the stranger, "as you havenever yet abused me. It is only those who are trying to kill me who havecause to fear me."

"Indeed, sir, I wish to be good to every person," said Pet.

"I know you do," said Time, "and that is why I am bound to help you. Thething you want most is a precious jewel called Experience. You are goingnow in search of it; yes, you are, though you do not know anything aboutit as yet. You will know it after you have found it. Now, I am going togive you some instructions."

"Thank you, sir," said Pet, who was delighted to find that he was not agovernment, and had no intention of bringing her back to her nursery.

"First of all I must tell you," said Time, "that you have a preciousgift which was born with you: it is the power of entering into otherpeople whenever you wish, living their lives, thinking their thoughts,and seeing everything as they see it."

"How nice!" cried Pet.

"It is a most useful gift if properly cultivated," said Time, "and itwill certainly help you to gain your jewel. Now, whenever you find aperson whose life you would wish to know all about for your owninstruction, you have only to wish, and immediately your existence willpass into theirs."

"And shall I ever get out again?" asked Pet, who had an inveteratedislike of all imprisonment.

"I am going to tell you about that," said Time. "You must not remain toolong locked up in anybody. Here is a curious tiny clock, with a littlegold key, and you must take them with you and be very careful of them.Whenever you find that you have passed into somebody else, you must atonce wind up your clock and hang it somewhere so that you can see it asyou go about. The clock will go for a month, and as soon as it runs downand stops, you will be changed back into your separate self again. Amonth will be long enough for you to live in each person."

"Oh, thank you, thank you," cried Pet, seizing the clock.

"One thing you must be sure not to forget," said Time, "so attend to mewell. There is a mysterious sympathy between you and the clock and thelittle gold key, and if you lose the key after the clock is wound up theclock will go on forever, or at least until you find the key again. Soif you do not want to be shut up in somebody to the end of your life, becareful to keep guard of the key."

"That I will," said Pet.

"And now, good-by," said Time. "You can go on at this sort of thing aslong as you like—until you are quite grown up, perhaps; and youcouldn't have a better education."

Conclusion next month.

[Pg 95]

Useful Knowledge

Knives and forks with ivory, bone or wooden handles should not be putinto cold water. But we suggest that when our readers buy knives for thetable they get those with silver-plated handles and blades. They need nobath brick to keep them bright, but only an occasional rub with whiting,and save "lots of trouble."

Lemon Pie.—One cup of hot water, one tablespoonful of corn starch, onecup of white sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, the juice and gratedrind of one lemon. Cook for a few minutes, add one egg, and bake with atop and bottom crust.

Strawberry Shortcake.—One quart of flour sifted dry, with two largeteaspoonfuls of baking powder, one tablespoonful of sugar, and a littlesalt. Add three tablespoonfuls of butter and sweet milk, enough to forma soft dough. Bake in a quick oven, and when partially cooked splitopen, spread with butter, and cover with a layer of strawberries wellsprinkled with sugar; lay the other half on top, and spread in the samemanner.

A Good Way To Use Cold Meat.—Take the remnants of any fresh roastedmeat and cut in thin slices. Lay them in a dish with a little plainboiled macaroni, if you have it, and season thoroughly with pepper,salt, and a little walnut catsup. Fill a deep dish half full; add a verylittle finely chopped onion, and pour over half a can of tomatoes ortomatoes sliced, having previously saturated the meat with stock orgravy. Cover with a thick crust of mashed potato, and bake till this isbrown in a not too hot oven, but neither let it be too slow.

Omelet.—Take as many eggs as required, and add three teaspoonfuls ofmilk and a pinch of salt to each egg. Beat lightly for three or fourminutes. Melt a teaspoonful of butter in a hot pan, and pour on theeggs. They will at once begin to bubble and rise up, and must be keptfrom sticking to the bottom of the pan with a knife. Cook two or threeminutes. If desired, beat finely chopped ham or parsley with the eggsbefore cooking.

An experienced gardener says that a sure sign to find out if plants inpots require wetting is to rap on the side of the pot, near the middle,with the finger knuckle; if it give forth a hollow ring the plant needswater; but if there is a dull sound there is still moisture enough tosustain the plant.

Cakes Without Eggs.—In a little book just issued from the press ofMessrs. Scribner & Welford, New York, a large number of practical,though novel, receipts are given for making cakes of various kinds, fromthe informal griddle-cake to the stately bride-cake, without eggs, bythe use of Royal Baking Powder. Experienced housekeepers inform us thatthis custom has already obtained large precedence over old-fashionedmethods in economical kitchens, and that the product is frequentlysuperior to that where eggs are used, and that less butter is alsorequired for shortening purposes. The advantage is not alone in thesaving effected, but in the avoidance of the trouble attendant uponsecuring fresh eggs and the annoyance of an occasional cake spoiled bythe accidental introduction of an egg that has reached a little toonearly the incubatory period. The Royal Baking Power also invariablyinsures perfectly light, sweet and handsome cake, or when used forgriddle cakes, to be eaten hot, enables their production in the shortestpossible space of time, and makes them most tender and delicious, aswell as entirely wholesome. There is no other preparation like it.

Feeding Cooked Material.—The feed for young chicks should always becooked, for if this is done there will be less liability of boweldisease; but the adult stock should have whole grains a portion of thetime. By cooking the food, one is better enabled to feed a variety, aspotatoes, turnips, beets, carrots and such like, can be utilized withadvantage. All such material as bran, corn meal, middlings, or groundoats should at least be scalded, if not cooked, which renders it moredigestible and more quickly beneficial. Where shells or lime are notwithin reach, a substitute may be had by stirring a spoonful of groundchalk in the food of every six hens; but gravel must be provided wherethis method is adopted.

[Pg 96]

The Humorist

In an argument with an irascible and not very learned man, Sydney Smithwas victor, whereupon the defeated said, "If I had a son who was anidiot, I'd make a parson of him." Mr. Smith calmly replied, "Your fatherwas of a different opinion."

A Banana skin lay on the grocer's floor. "What are you doing there?"asked the scales, peeking over the edge of the counter. "Oh, I'm lyingin wait for the grocer."—"Pshaw!" said the scales: "I've been doingthat for years."

The late Dr. Doyle was applied to on one occasion by a Protestantclergyman for a contribution towards the erection of a church. "Icannot," said the bishop, "consistently aid you in the erection of aProtestant church; but I will give you £10 towards the removal of theold one." Received with thanks.

"What is a curiosity, ma?" asked little Jimmy. "A curiosity is somethingthat is very strange, my son."—"If pa bought you a sealskin sack thiswinter would that be a curiosity?"—"No, my son; that would be amiracle."

A British and Yankee skipper were sailing side by side, and in themutual chaff the English captain hoisted the Union Jack and criedout—"There's a leg of mutton for you." The Yankee unfurled the Starsand Stripes and shouted back, "And there is the gridiron which broiledit."

A Mr. Follin became engaged to a fair maid whose acquaintance he formedon a transatlantic voyage last year. The girl's father consented totheir union and while joining their hands he said to the would-bebridegroom, "Follin, love and esteem her."—"Of course, I will," was thereply. "Didn't I fall in love on a steamer?"

Miss Lily, seeing a certain friend of the family arrive for dinner,showed her joy by all sorts of affectionate caresses. "You always seemglad when I come to dinner," said the invited guest. "Oh, yes,"replied the little girl. "You love me a great deal, then?"—"Oh, itisn't for that," was the candid reply. "But when you come we always havechocolate creams, you know."

Piety That Paid.—"How does it happen that you joined the Methodistchurch?" asked a man of a dealer in ready-made clothing. "Vell, pecausemine brudder choined der Bresbyterians. I vas not vant der let haem gitadvantage mit me."—"How get the advantage?"—"Mine brudder noticed dothe was ein shoemaker und dot der Bresbyterians shtood oop ven dey bray.He see dot dey vare der shoes oud in dot vay und he choins dot shurch tohold dot trade, und prospers; so I choined der Methodists."—"What didyou gain by that?"—"Vy, der Methodists kneel down unt vare der pritchesat der knees out ven dey bray, unt dey bray long unt vare pig holes indem pritches. Vell, I sells clothes to dem Methodists unt makesmonish."—"But don't you have to donate considerable to the support ofthe church?"—"Yah, I puts much money in dot shurch basket, but eferytime I denotes to dot shurch I marks pritches oop ten per cent, und getsmore as even."

Prose and Poetry.—"Yes," she said dreamily, as she thrust her snowyfingers between the pages of the last popular novel; "life is full oftender regrets." "My tenderest regret is that I haven't the funds tosummer us at Newport," he replied, without taking his eye off thebutcher, who was softly oozing through the front gate with the bill inhis hand. "Ah, Newport," she lisped, with a languid society sigh; "Ioften think of Newport by the sea, and water my dreams with the tenderdews of memory." She leaned back in the hammock, and he continued: "Iwish I could water the radishes and mignonette with the tender dews ofmemory."—"Why?" she asked, clasping her hands together. "Why, becauseit almost breaks my back handling the water-pot, and half the water goeson my feet, and it takes about half an hour to pump that pail of water,and it requires something like a dozen pailfuls to do the business. Whateffect do you think the tender dews of memory would have on a gooddrumhead cabbage?" But she had turned her head and was looking over thedaisy-dappled fields, and she placed her fingers in her ears, while theprosaic butcher, who had just arrived, was talking about the price ofpork.

[Pg 97]

DONAHOE'S MAGAZINE.

BOSTON, JANUARY, 1886.

Notes on Current Topics.

"IT IS FASHIONABLE TO BE IRISH, NOW."

Hon. Hugh O'Brien's Magnificent Record as Mayor of Boston.

Hon. Hugh O'Brien, Mayor of Boston, has made one of the ablest chiefexecutives that the city has ever possessed. Indeed, few past Mayors canat all compare with him either in personal impressiveness or financialacumen. No man living understands Boston's true interests better thanhe, and no one has the future prosperity of the New England metropolismore sincerely at heart. Possessing an earnest desire for the publicwelfare, he has, with characteristic vigor, energy and broadmindedness,advocated measures calculated to redound to the immense benefit of thecapital of the old Bay State. His name will live in the history of thegreat city, as that of one of far-seeing judgment, great administrativeability and unsurpassed intellectual accomplishments.

"It is fashionable to be Irish, now!" said a gentlemen at a meeting ashort time since, and in a great measure the assertion will stand thetest. When Hugh O'Brien sought the suffrages of his fellow-citizens, ayear ago, for the mayorality, thousands, who then malignantly sneered athis candidacy, were this year found among his most earnest supportersfor re-election. His brilliant administration, thorough impartiality andmanifest sound judgment has entirely removed the prejudice and bias froma very large number of honest, well-meaning citizens, who had previouslyregarded the idea of an "Irish" Mayor with profound distrust. MayorO'Brien's friends and supporters are not now confined to any oneparticular party, but have given evidence of their existence in otherpolitical camps. A Democrat in politics, and nominated originally by theDemocrats, Hugh O'Brien has not only proved entirely satisfactory to hisown party, but has also earned the confidence and esteem of a largeportion of the Republican element. At a recent Republican meeting, OtisD. Dana, strongly advocated the nomination of Mr. O'Brien by that partyon the ground that as a matter of party expediency and for the good ofthe entire city, Mr. O'Brien should receive Republican indorsem*nt, andthus be given an opportunity "to act even more independently than he hasthis year." This is but an instance of Mayor O'Brien's popularity withmen of all parties. The world moves, and the re-election of Hugh O'Briento the mayorality may be considered cumulative evidence of the truth ofthe quotation made above, that "It is fashionable to be Irish, now."

A New Year's Present.—No better present can be given to a friend than acopy of our Magazine. Any of our present subscribers getting a new onewill get both for $3.00 (one for himself and another for his friend),sent to separate addresses.

A New Deputy Collector For Boston.—We endorse with pleasure this fromthe Connecticut Catholic: We congratulate Thomas Flatley, secretary ofthe Land League, under the presidency of Hon. P. A. Collins, on hisappointment as deputy collector of the custom house in Boston. He is awhole-souled gentleman of ability, and Democratic to the core. Hiselevation will please thousands of Irish-Americans in many Statesbesides Massachusetts.

Important Announcement.—As we have electrotyped our Magazine, we cansupply any number of this issue.

Mr. P. J. Maguire for Alderman.

[Pg 98]

The Democracy of Wards 19 and 22, constituting the 9th district, haveunanimously voted to support Mr. P. James Maguire for alderman at theensuing election. This, no doubt, secures for Mr. Maguire the cordialsupport of the Democratic City Committee, and as the two wards aredemocratic in politics, it ought to be an election for that gentlemanwithout any doubts thrown in. Mr. Maguire has had a varied experience inmunicipal legislation, in which he has proved himself a most useful andcapable servant of the people. He served six years in the Boston CityGovernment, that is, from 1879 to 1884 inclusive. During this time hewas on the committee on public buildings, also on the committee on theassessors department, on committees on Stony Brook, public parks,claims, police, and several others of more or less special importance,in all of which he showed a fine business efficiency and discriminatingcapacity highly laudable. He has also served as a Director of PublicInstitutions. Last year he had to contend against the forces of a bigcorporation, and other organized oppositions, in favor of the Republicannominee for alderman, which are not likely to avail against him in thiscampaign. The gentleman is of the highly respected firm of Maguire &Sullivan, merchant and military tailors, 243 Washington Street, betweenWilliams Court and the Herald office, one of the busiest sections ofthe city. Their trade, it should be said embraces considerable patronagefrom the reverend clergy for cassocks and other wearing apparel.

We give our readers this month sixteen additional pages of readingmatter. Should our circulation increase to warrant a continuance of thisaddition—say one hundred and ninety-two pages a year—we will continuethe addition. Come, friends, and enable us to benefit you as well asourselves. Let each subscriber send us a new one.

A Fair in aid of Fr. Roche's working Boys' Home will be held in the newbuilding on Bennet Street, commencing Easter Monday night.

The King of Spain, Alphonso XII., died at his palace in Madrid, on themorning of the 25th of November, in his 28th year.

Death of the Vice-President.

The eventful political and professional career of Hon. Thomas AndrewsHendricks, Vice-President of the United States, came to an abrupt endtowards evening, on the 25th of November, at his home in Indianapolis,Ind. The event was sudden and unexpected. There was no one at hisbedside at the time, for his wife, who had been there all day, had leftfor a few minutes to see a caller, and it was she who first made thediscovery of his death. For more than two years Mr. Hendricks had beenin ill health, and recently the apprehension had been growing on himthat his death was likely to occur at most any time. He had a gangrenousattack arising from a disabled foot in 1882, when, for a time, it wasfeared he would die of blood-poisoning. After his recovery from this hewas frequently troubled with pains in his head and breast, and to thosewith whom he was on confidential terms he frequently expressed himselfas apprehensive of a sudden demise from paralysis; but he said that whendeath came he hoped it would come quickly and painlessly. He was atChicago the previous week, and upon his return he complained of therecurrence of the physical troubles to which he was subject. Hisindisposition, however, did not prevent him from attending to businessas usual. The night previous he attended a reception given at theresidence of Hon. John J. Cooper, treasurer of the State. The deathfollowing so soon after that of the late ex-President Grant, has cast agloom over the whole country. His age was sixty-seven years. Theinterment took place on the first of December, at the family grave inhis own town. There were present members of the Cabinet andrepresentatives from every part of the country. None will regret hisloss more than the friends of Ireland, at home and abroad. His recentspeech on Irish affairs, which was published in the November issue ofour Magazine, had more influence on the stirring events in England andIreland than any other utterance for years. The nation laments his loss,and the Irish people throughout the world join the mourning.

Southern Sketches.—We are obliged to lay over the interesting "SouthernSketches." The next will be a description of Havana, Cuba.[Pg 99]

Conversions.—The Rev. Wm. Sutherden, Curate of St. John's, Torquay, andthe Rev. W. B. Drewe, M. A. (Oxon), who for twenty-three years held theVicarage of Longstock, Stockbridge, Hants, have been received into theChurch—the former by the Cardinal-Archbishop at Archbishop's House,Westminster; the latter by the Very Rev. Canon Mount, at St. Joseph's,Southampton.

Particular Notice.—This issue of our Magazine commences the eighth yearof its publication. There are some dear, good souls who have forgottenthat it requires money to run the publication. They surely would notlike to hear that we were unable to pay the printer, bookbinder, clerks,paper-maker, etc. Without their aid we cannot fulfil our obligations tothose we employ. This notice has reference only to those who owe us forone, and many for two, years. Let not the sun go down, after readingthis notice, without paying what you owe us.

College in Holland.—There lately arrived in Rome Rev. Andrew Jansen,Rector of the College of Steil, in Holland. This College is German,established in Holland to avoid the Kulturkampf persecutions. It is in amost flourishing condition, having at present 130 students preparingthemselves for the foreign missions. Father Jansen is accompanied by therenowned missionary Anser. Two years ago, the latter was in the Provinceof Chang-tong, China, and one day, travelling alone, he was surprised bya band of ferocious idolaters, taken and stripped, and tied by the armsto a tree. They then beat him most unmercifully with rods, broke one armand one leg, and left him bleeding, and, as they thought, dying. SomeChinese, passing by shortly afterwards, found him still alive; took himto a neighboring hut, and by assiduous care, skill, and nursing, healedhim.

Illustrated Almanac.—The Angel Guardian Annual, in a new garb, isannounced. The friends of this admirable Institution, will find thisyear's issue particularly interesting. It contains 16 additional pagesand has several splendid illustrations. No Catholic family in the cityshould be without it. It costs only 10 cents. Look at the announcementand order at once. Orders filled by Brother Joseph, Treasurer House ofAngel Guardian, 85 Vernon Street, or by Messrs. T. B. Noonan & Co.,Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.

The Encyclical we have used is The London Tablet's translation.

The Catholic Citizen, Milwaukee, Wis., has entered upon its sixteenthyear. We are pleased to see it is well sustained, as it deserves to belong up to the Citizen.

The Forty-Ninth Congress of the United States, assembled at Washingtonon the 7th of December.

The fair held at Mechanic Building, Sept. 3d, in aid of the CarneyHospital, netted $2,803.38. The largest amount realized by one table was$347.45 taken by the Immaculate Conception table, under charge of MissA. L. Murphy.

Salt Lake City has a population of about 25,000 inhabitants, with a goodbrick Catholic church and three resident priests. There is also aconvent and sister's hospital. The latter is a fine building and looksas big and firm as the mountains themselves, the cost of which isestimated at $70,000. It would be an ornament to the largest city in theUnited States.

China and Japan.—The important and successful communications betweenthe Vatican and Pekin have been followed by the opening of similarrelations with Japan. The Sovereign Pontiff has written a letter to theMikado, thanking him for the favor extended to Missionaries and theMikado replies in most cordial terms, assuring the Pope that he wouldcontinue to afford protection to Catholics, and announcing the despatchof a Japanese mission to the Vatican.

The will of the Rev. Michael. M. Green, of Newton, Mass., which is onfile at the Middlesex Probate Court, bequeaths his house and land onAdams and Washington Streets, Newton, to the Home for Catholic DestituteChildren, at Boston; his household furniture to St. Mary's Infant Asylumof Boston: his horse and carriage and garden implements to the LittleSisters of the Poor and the Carney Hospital; his library to Rev. RobertP. Stack in trust to the Catholic Seminary[Pg 100] of the Archdiocese ofBoston, and to the Church of Our Lady Help of Christians at Newton; hisgold watch to the Young Ladies' Sodality of Our Lady Help of Christiansat Newton. Rev. Robert P. Stack, of Watertown, is the executor.

A Welcome Home.—The people of St. Augustine's parish, South Boston,gave to their beloved pastor, Father O'Callaghan, on his return from afour months trip to Europe, a welcome that he can never forget. Hearrived in Boston on Saturday, Nov. 21, and on Sunday he celebrated HighMass. In the afternoon the pastor was welcomed by the Sunday School andpresented with a check for $300. The presentation speech was made byMaster Philip Carroll, and feelingly responded to. An address was alsomade by Rev. James Keegan. In the evening the lecture-room was packed tooverflowing at the reception given by the congregation. The welcomingspeech was delivered by Judge Joseph D. Fallon. At the conclusion of theaddress the Judge, on behalf of the congregation, presented FatherO'Callaghan with a check for $2,125. Father O'Callaghan was overcome,but responded with emotion, in a fitting manner expressing hisgratification at the welcome he had received. Father O'Callaghan is inperfect health and spirits, and expressed himself delighted with histrip. A large number called at the parochial residence, in the evening,to pay their respects.

New Chapel in the Immaculate Conception.—The handsome new marble altarsin the basem*nt chapel of the Immaculate Conception were consecrated onthe 20th of November, by Most Rev. Archbishop Williams. The centralaltar is the gift of the daughters of the late Mrs. Joseph Iasigi. Thethree beautiful stained glass windows in the sanctuary are the gift ofthe Married Men's Sodality. The altars and the stained glass windows inthe side chapels, which are dedicated respectively to the Sacred Heartof Jesus, and to our Lady of Lourdes, are the gifts of the MarriedLadies' Sodality, the Young Ladies' Sodality, and the Sunday Schoolchildren. New Stations of the Cross have also been added. There is nowprobably no finer basem*nt chapel in the country than that of theImmaculate Conception. The usual Masses, Sunday School, and eveningservices were held there for the first time last Sunday.

Sadlier's Catholic Directory and Ordo for the year 1886 will be issuedimmediately. Since it has passed under the editorial control of JohnGilmary Shea, this work has been greatly improved and we hope that theforthcoming edition will possess such excellence that not only all theold customers of the Sadlier publications may purchase it, but that atleast 10,000 new patrons may be found for it.

What the Papers Say.Chicago Citizen: Donahoe's Magazine (publishedby Patrick Donahoe, editor and proprietor, No. 21 Boylston Street,Boston, Mass.,) for December, has come to hand and is one of the bestissues of that admirable Irish-American publication that we have seen.It contains, among other highly interesting papers, the following: "TheIrish Apostle of Corinthia;" "Reminiscences of Our Ninth (Mass.)Regiment;" "Shan Pallas Castle," by Edward Cronin; "Southern Sketches,"by the Rev. Father Newman; "Dead Man's Island," by T. P. O'Connor, M.P.; a life of Hon. A. M. Keily, etc. The Magazine is also replete withpoetry, editorial and miscellaneous writings. It is, in short, a creditto Irish-American literature.

The Roman Catholic Protectorate, an educational institute for boys, atGlencoe, Mo., was burned recently. There were nine Christian Brothersand eighty-five boys in the building when the fire broke out, but nolives were lost. One Brother and two of the pupils, finding their escapecut off by the flames, were compelled to leap from a third-story window.All were hurt but will recover.

Execution of Riel.—Riel was hanged at Regina, on the morning of the16th of November, a few minutes after eight o'clock. Up to the very lastmoment many refused to believe that Sir John A. Macdonald would, merelyto serve himself, or his party, hang a man who was undoubtably insane.Many also believed that as the Metis had been very cruelly and unjustlytreated by the government, the recommendation attached to the verdict ofguilty would have effect and the sentence would be commuted. But afaction on which Sir John A. Macdonald depends for existence ravened forthe unfortunate man's blood, and Sir John judged it politic to gratifytheir thirst for vengeance, and riel was hanged.[Pg 101]

Notre Dame Scholastic:—Our great metropolis of the West may take ajust pride in numbering amongst its citizens so true and talented anartist as Miss Eliza Allan Starr. This lady is one who has aided theaccomplishments of a naturally gifted mind, and skilful pencil, by greatand careful study, and extensive travel through the celebrated artcentres of Europe. As a result, her contributions to Catholic literaturehave placed her in the first rank among the distinguished writers of thepresent day, while her lectures on art and art literature have been, forsome years back, highly prized by the social circles of Chicago. It iswith pleasure, therefore, that we learn that Miss Starr resumed, on the17th of November, her regular weekly lectures on Art Literature, to becontinued throughout the winter and spring. This series will considerthe wonderful treasures of the Eternal City, and will receive a freshinterest by reason of new illustrations received from Rome and Florenceduring last summer. It is our earnest wish that her efforts for theadvancement of true artistic taste and culture may meet with the dueappreciation they so well deserve.

A Marriage has been arranged between the Duc de Montpensier's onlysurviving son, Antonio, and the Infanta Eulalie. The former was educatedby Mgr. Dupanloup, and is two years younger than his fiancée, he havingbeen born in Seville in 1866, and she in Madrid in 1864. Thenegotiations about the marriage settlements have been difficult. He willinherit at least half of the largest royal fortune in Europe. TheInfanta Eulalie is of lively manners and agreeable physiognomy. She waseducated by the Countess Soriente, a lady of New England birth, and isan accomplished player on the harp and guitar. Her instructor was thegifted Cuban negress, who used to perform at Queen Isabella's concertsat the Palais de Castille.

The First Purchase of land by tenants in Ireland, under the LandPurchase Act of last session, was completed on Monday, the 9th ofNovember, when Mr. George Fottrell, late Solicitor of the LandCommission, met some forty tenants, on an estate in the county ofTyrone, and got the deeds executed which make them fee-simpleproprietors, subject only to the liabilities to pay, for forty-nineyears, instalments materially less than their rent. The entiretransaction, from the date of Mr. Fottrell's first meeting with thetenants at Tyrone to that of the execution of the deeds, occupied onlyone fortnight. Mr. Fottrell's exuberant energy is finding a vent inpushing on the work of land purchase in Ireland, and his largeexperience and keen interest in all that concerns the land question arerecognized as extremely valuable at this moment. Not only has he, in anunusually rapid manner, carried out this first sale under the PurchaseAct, but he has published what he calls a "Practical Guide to the LandPurchase Acts," a book which is likely to be of great practical utilityto lawyers and other persons engaged in the work of carrying sales underthe Acts into effect.

Buried Alive.—Full particulars have come to hand from Bishop Puginierregarding the martyrdom of the Chinese priest Cap. For three days hesuffered excruciating torments. On the fourth day the mandarin asked himto translate the Lord's Prayer. When he came to the third petition, "Thykingdom come," he was asked of what kingdom he spoke. He replied, "OfGod's kingdom." The mandarin immediately ordered him to be buried alive.

A Boston Merchant on the Irish Question.

The following is a letter of Mr. A. Shuman, one of Boston's leadingmerchants, which was read at the great meeting in Faneuil Hall, and wasreceived with cheers:

Boston, Mass., Oct. 19.

My Dear Mr. O'Reilly:—I regret, exceedingly, that absence from the citywill prevent my acceptance of your courteous invitation to be present atthe meeting Monday evening, at Faneuil Hall, called to express practicalsympathy with Ireland and the work of Parnell.

It is natural for the American people, with their love of freedom andequity, to have fellow-feeling with struggling Ireland in any peacefulmethod they might adopt to secure their political rights and equalitywith Great Britain.

Political freedom in Ireland, I am assured, combined with her naturalposition, would inaugurate an era of prosperity such as she had beforefrom 1782 to 1800. Capital would be attracted, lands, now lying barren,would be utilized, and mills and factories would spring up.

I think that the Irish question is an[Pg 102] important American question. Themany millions of dollars now sent annually from this country by kin totheir struggling relations could remain here. Nine-tenths of the manyhundred employees of our own firm were either born in Ireland, or are ofIrish parentage, and all contribute, some more, some less, to the samepurpose. This would be unnecessary, and Ireland could erect herself intoa position of independence, and neither ask nor accept favors from therest of the world.

This condition of the country would be hastened could she choose, fromthe midst of her people, representatives who understand her wants andare in sympathy with her welfare. But, as the British Government doesnot pay its representatives, Ireland is deprived of many of her best menwho have not the means of independent maintenance, but who would gladlyserve their country and espouse her cause.

Hence, the most practical thing, it seems to me, is to raise funds toassist members who otherwise could not afford to go.

Being, therefore, in sympathy with the movement to that end, andbelieving that the election of such men will require the assistance ofAmerican merchants. I enclose, herewith, a check for $100, which pleaseforward, and oblige,

Yours truly,

A. Shuman.

Dr. John G. Morris, son of our esteemed old citizen and patriot, Dr.Patrick Morris, has removed from South Boston to 1474 Washington Street,Boston. Dr. Morris won high honors in the Medical School of Harvard, andis sure to take a prominent place as a practising physician.

Concert and Reunion of the Holy Name Society.—On the evening of Nov.23, in Union Park Hall, Boston, a vocal and instrumental concert tookplace under the direction of Mr. Calixta Lavallee, assisted by MissHelen O'Reilly, soprano, and Mr. Charles E. McLaughlin, violinist.Dancing and refreshments followed. The society was present in fullstrength, and the entertainment was a notable success.

The parishioners of St. Francis de Sales' Church, Vernon Street, BostonHighlands, welcomed home their pastor, Rev. John Delahunty, who has justreturned from Europe. A check for nearly $2,000 was presented to him.

The Notre Dame Scholastic says of The Ave Maria, which we endorsewith all our heart:—Our esteemed contemporary, The Ave Maria, nowappears in a new and attractive dress of type, which, while adding tothe appearance of this popular magazine, must greatly increase its valueto subscribers by reason of its legibility of character. The beauty andclearness of the type and printed page reflect credit alike on thetype-founders and the printers. In this connection it may be proper tostate that the enterprising editor of Our Lady's journal announces anenlargement of four pages for the volume beginning with January, 1886.This improvement, together with the fact that some of the best and mostpopular writers in the English language will continue to contribute toits pages, makes The Ave Maria the cheapest and most valuablepublication of its kind in the world.

Rev. Father Sestini, who for twenty years has edited the Messenger ofthe Sacred Heart, and directed the Apostleship of Prayer in America,now retires from office on account of advanced age. He is succeeded bythe Rev. R. S. Dewey, S. J., to whom, at Woodstock College, Md., allcommunications concerning the interests above-named shall behenceforward addressed.

St. Elizabeth's Hospital.—The old Winson estate, West Brookline Street,Boston, purchased last year by the Sisters of St. Francis, has beenenlarged by the addition of a four-story brick building and wing, andotherwise adapted to its new purpose. The Sisters in charge have sparedno pains to have every detail arranged so as to secure the comfort andconvenience of the patients. The house was opened on the feast of itspatron, Saint Elizabeth, November 19, on which occasion ArchbishopWilliams celebrated Mass, and formally dedicated the institution.

A New port has been discovered in Guinea by the Missionaries of thePropaganda. They have given it the name of Port Leo, in honor of thereigning Pontiff.[Pg 103]

The Elections in England and Ireland.

The contest between the two great parties—Liberal and Tory—is close.That is, the Tories and Parnellites are about equal to the Liberals. Atthe time of our writing there were several elections to be held. Asthings look, Parnell is master of the situation. The London Timesdeclares that "that the only one certain result of the elections is thecommanding position secured by Mr. Parnell. This is not an inference,but a fact that concerns parties alike."

Mr. Parnell says: "It is very difficult to predict whether or not theLiberals will have a majority over the Tories and Nationalists, butneither the Liberals nor Tories, with the Nationalists, can have morethan a majority of 10, and, therefore, I think the new Parliament can'tlast long. As to our policy, I can only say it will be guided bycirc*mstances. We cannot say what our course is till we heardeclarations by the English leaders on the Irish question. That questionwill be the question unless foreign complications arise."

One of the most surprising features of the general election in Irelandis the complete collapse of the Liberal party. Not a single Liberal hasreturned for any constituency. Saturday's dispatches announced thedefeat of Mr. Thomas Lea in West Donegal, and Mr. William Findlater inSouth Londonderry. That settles it. The list is closed. Every Liberalcandidate who tried his fortune with an Irish constituency has suffereda signal discomfiture at the polls. Some of them have been beaten byConservatives, others by Nationalists. In one way or another all havebeen sent back to private life.

At the general election of 1880, Ireland returned to Parliament eighteenLiberals, and twenty-six Liberal Home Rulers, twenty-four Conservativesand thirty-five Parnellites. Thus, out of the one hundred and threeIrish members, Mr. Gladstone could count forty-four supporters againstsixty-nine Conservatives and Parnellites. In the present election theConservatives will probably have eighteen seats, while the Parnelliteswill secure the remaining eighty-five seats. The Liberals and LiberalHome Rulers are wiped out to the last man. God save Ireland.

The Livingstons, in Ireland, lived on the land of the famous ConO'Neill, who once was rescued from prison by his wife in the oddest wayimaginable. She hollowed out two small cheeses, concealed a rope ineach, and sent them to her lord and master, who swung himself down fromthe castle window and struck a free foot upon the green grass beneath.

There are in the United States 400 Catholic priests bearing some one ofthe following nineteen well-known Irish names. The numbers following thenames indicate the number of priests in this country: Brennan, 12;Brady, 22; Carroll, 13; Doherty, 16; Kelly, 25; Lynch, 21; McCarthy, 15;Maguire, 12; McManus, 14; Meagher, 14; Murphy, 33; O'Brien, 24;O'Connor, 14; O'Neill, 18; O'Reilly, 34; O'Sullivan, 18; Quinn, 16;Ryan, 31; and Walsh, 33.

Philadelphia has established an excellent precedent for every other cityand town in the Union. A few days ago the manager of a popular theatrethere was fined $100 for advertising a spectacular exhibition by settingup indecent posters. It is high time this shocking breach of commonpropriety was corrected everywhere. The pictorial representations, bywhich the performances of the stage are introduced to the public, areoften far worse than the living exhibitions.

New York Family Journal.—A few days ago the Mugwumps thought they wereas big and powerful as Hell Gate, with all its attachments, beforeGeneral Newton blew it up. Now they are just where that obstruction wasthe day after the explosion. They thought they were the rooster, whenthey were only one of his smallest tail feathers.

The Orange Crop of Florida for the season of 1884-5 was, as near as itcould be definitely ascertained, 900,000 bushels. For the coming seasonthe crop is estimated at a million and a quarter bushels. Of the lastcrop of 900,000 bushel crates, over one-half was shipped throughJacksonville.

The Manatee, or Sea Cow, is still to be seen on the southeast coast ofFlorida. At the extreme southern end of Indian River, in the St. LucieRiver, and in Hope Sound, are found the favorite feeding grounds ofthese rarest and shyest of North American marine curiosities.

[Pg 104]

Personal.

Bishop Gilmour, on his late visit to Rome, received the honor ofMonsignore for his vicar-general, Father Boff.

The Hon. William J. Onahan has returned from a tour through the IrishCatholic colonies of Nebraska and Dakota. He reports them to be in aflourishing condition.

It is not generally known that the parish church of Eu, France, wherethe chateau of the Comte de Paris is situated, is dedicated to St.Laurence O'Toole.

It is reported that Lord William Nevill, who some months ago wasreceived into the Catholic Church in Melbourne, and who has returned toEngland, contemplates entering the Priesthood.

Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly has recently written a hymn for the GoldenJubilee of the Priesthood of His Holiness, Pope Leo XIII., which occursDecember 23d, 1887. It has been set to music, and it has not only beentranslated into German, but into Italian by an eminent theologicalprofessor, and the hymn is now on its way to Rome to be presented to thePope by a member of the Papal Court.

Madame Sophie Menter, the famous pianist, now inhabits a castle in theTyrol (Schloss Itter), where she has just received the Abbé Liszt, whopassed several days there, getting up at 4 o'clock a. m., to work,attending mass at 7.30, and then continuing work until midday. The Abbé,who was received with guns and triumphal arches, has now left for Rome.

The friends of Dr. Thomas Dwight, Parkman Professor of Anatomy atHarvard University, will be pleased to learn that he has been made amember of the Philosophæ-Medicæ Society of Rome. A diploma has beenissued by President J. M. Cornoldi, S. J. This society was founded byDr. Travaglini, with the full sanction of the late Pope Pius IX. It isintended for the advancement of the sciences and philosophy, and itranks among its members some of the greatest scientific men, doctors ofmedicine, and philosophers of Europe. The diploma is now on its way toAmerica.

Rev. R. J. Meyer, S. J., rector of St. Louis University, of St. Louis,Mo., has been made Provincial of the western province of the JesuitOrder, vice Rev. Leopold Bushart, S. J.

The Right Rev. Louis De Goesbriand, D. D., Bishop of Burlington, Vt.,celebrated the thirty-second anniversary of his elevation to theepiscopacy of the Catholic Church on Friday, October 30th, ultimo.

Rt. Rev. Jeremiah O'Sullivan, D. D., recently consecrated the fourthbishop of Mobile, Ala., was born in Kanturk, county Cork, Ireland, andis forty-one years old. At an early age he intended to devote himself tothe Church, and made his preparatory studies in the schools of hisnative place. At the age of nineteen he came to America, entered St.Charles College, Howard County, Md., and finished his classics. The yearfollowing he entered St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. Having completedhis theological course, in that institution, he was ordained by MostRev. Archbishop Spaulding in June, 1868. His first charge was inBarnesville, Montgomery County, Md., where he remained one year. He wastransferred to Westernport, Md., where he remained nine years. Duringhis stay he built a large church, and a convent for the Sisters of St.Joseph, whom he introduced to Western Maryland. In 1880, or 1881, MostRev. Archbishop Gibbons selected Father O'Sullivan as the successor tothe Rev. Father Walter as pastor of St. Patrick's, Washington, D. C.,the latter going to the Immaculate Conception parish. But an appealbeing made to His Grace by St. Patrick's congregation for the retentionof Father Walter, the change did not take place. On the removal of Rev.Father Boyle to St. Matthew's, Rev. Father O'Sullivan was called to takehis place at St. Peter's. During his ministry there he displayed greatability in managing. He reduced the debt of the church from $47,000 to$12,000, besides, making expensive improvements in the church, schoolsand pastoral residence. He possesses administrative qualities to a highdegree, and makes an impressive and forcible speaker.

[Pg 105]

Notices of Recent Publications.

The Catholic Publication Society Co., N. Y.

THE Illustrated Catholic Family Annual for 1886.

For eighteen years this welcome annual visitor has been received by us.It seems to improve with age, for this is the best number yet issued.The illustrations, matter, printing and binding, are all excellent. Werefer the reader to the advertisem*nt for a description of its variedand excellent contents. The price is only 25 cents. Every subscriber toour Magazine sending us, free of expense, their annual subscription ($2)will receive a copy of the Annual free. Send money at once.

THE Keys of the Kingdom; or, The Unfailing Promise. By the Rev.James J. Moriarty, LL.D., pastor of St. John's Church,Syracuse; author of "Stumbling-Blocks made Stepping-Stones,""All for Love," etc. Price, $1.25 net.

The subjects treated of in this book are: Is religion worthy of man'sstudy? What rule of faith was laid down by Christ? The Church One. TheChurch Holy. The Church Catholic. The Church Apostolic. The varioussubjects are ably discussed in a pleasing and attractive manner by thelearned author. The book is beautifully printed and bound. It is justthe book to place in the hands of an inquiring Protestant friend as aChristmas present.

IRISH birthday book.

The Catholic Publication Society Co. has published an American editionof this book. It contains pieces in prose and verse by all the leadingIrish writers and speakers. It is bound in Irish linen, gilt edges, andsold for $1.

CAROLS For a Merry Christmas and a Joyous Easter. The music bythe Rev. Alfred Young, Priest of the Congregation of St. Paulthe Apostle. Price, 50 cents.

A very good book for the season. Buy it, all ye lovers of good music.

Benziger Bros., N. Y., Cin., and St. Louis.

CATHOLIC Belief: or, A Short and Simple Exhibition of CatholicDoctrine. By the Rev. Joseph Faà de Bruno, D.D., Rector Generalof the Pious Society of Missions, etc. Author's Americanedition edited by Rev. Louis A. Lambert, author of "Notes onIngersoll," etc. 35th edition. Price, 40 cents.

It is now about a year since this book was published, and the enormoussale in that short time is the greatest testimonial it couldpossibly receive.

D. & J. Sadlier & Co., New York.

THE Nativity Play; or, Christmas Cantata. By Rev. Gabriel A.Healy, Rector of St. Edward's Church, New York.

This play, says the preface, has been received most favorably by largeaudiences in the hall of St. Bernard's Church, New York City. It is aChristmas play, and most suitable for the coming holidays. It has beenwitnessed by thousands of the clergy and laity. The author is indebtedto Rev. Albany J. Christie, S. J., of London, Eng., Rev. Abram J. Ryan,poet-priest of the South, Miss Anna T. Sadlier, and others, whosebeautiful thoughts can be found in the work. Father Healy continues: "Ithas often been a thought with me, as I suppose it has often been withmany of my fellow priests, that it would be well for us and advantageousto our congregations, to revive some of the old mystery plays, which didso much to strengthen the faith of the faithful in the middle ages, andthis has been one of the prevailing motives which induced me to completethe material for, and give the representation of, the nativity play."There are eight photographic views, representing the Annunciation, theVisitation, the Adoration, visit of the Magi to King Herod, etc. Werecommend the book to the Rev. clergy, colleges and academies, andothers, as a very interesting, edifying and appropriate performance notonly for the holidays, but for all parts of the year. The book is gottenup by the Messrs. Sadlier in a handsome manner. It is a good Christmasgift for any of our young, or even for those advanced in years.

John Murphy & Co., Baltimore, Md.

THE Students' Handbook of British and American Literature. Withselections from the writings of the most distinguished authors.By Rev. O. L. Jenkins, A. M., S. S., late President of St.Charles College, Ellicott City, Md. Edited by a member of theSociety of St. Sulpice. Third edition revised and brought todate. Price, $1.25.

The value of this book is already known to the presidents, teachers,etc., in our colleges, seminaries and academies. Messrs. Murphy & Co.have given us an excellent book, and at a very moderate price.[Pg 106]

Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Ind.

THE Mad Penitent of Todi. By Mrs. Anna Hanson Dorsey.

This is another of the Ave Maria series of interesting stories, and toldby our old friend, Mrs. Dorsey, who was a contributor to the Pilot someforty odd years ago.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Catholic Historical Researches. Rev. A. A. Lambing, A. M., edits amagazine of extraordinary interest, entitled, "Catholic HistoricalResearches." It is published in Pittsburgh. It deserves the support ofall who wish to see published and preserved the early labors of Catholicmissionaries and settlers in America. Copies of valuable Frenchmanuscripts, bearing on our early history, lately received from thearchives of Paris, will soon appear in this magazine, the admirablemotto of which is from the address of the Fathers of the Third PlenaryCouncil, of Baltimore: "Catholic parents teach your children to take aspecial interest in the history of our own country.... We must keep firmand solid the liberties of our country by keeping fresh the noblememories of the past."

The Life of Father Isaac Jogues, Missionary Priest of the Society ofJesus, slain by the Indians in the State of New York in 1646, is havinga good sale. The price is $1. The profits of the sale go towards theShrine of Our Lady of Martyrs, at Auriesville, where Father Jogues andRené Goupel were put to death.

Admirers of the popular Irish authoress Miss Rosa Mulholland, will bepleased to learn that Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., of London, areabout to bring out a collection of her poems.

Mr. Sarsfield Hubert Burke, well known here as the author of"Historical Portraits of the Tudor Dynasty" and as a contributor toThe Catholic World, will publish, in the spring, in London, a new workon the "Tyranny and Oppression Practiced by the English Officials inIreland," from an early date down to 1830.

Prof. Lyons intends to publish, at an early date, Christian Reid'sadmirable story, "A Child of Mary," which originally appeared as aserial in the pages of The Ave Maria.

MUSIC.

From White, Smith & Co.

Vocal: "A Few More Years," words by Sam Lucas, music by H. J.Richardson. "Oh! Hush Thee," song by Chas. A. Gabriel. "I'll Meet OleMassa There," song by G. Galloway. "Carol the Good Tidings," Christmascarol by E. H. Bailey.

Instrumental: "Under the Lime Tree," by G. Lange. "Fairy VoicesWaltz," by A. G. Crowe, arranged for violin and piano. The same forviolin alone. "Nanon," lanciers quadrille, by E. H. Bailey. "Walker'sDip Waltzes," by C. A. White. "Beauty Polka," by Wm. E. Gilmore.Potpourri from "Mikado." "Mikado' Lanciers," by E. H. Bailey.

Books: Gems from "Whitsuntide in Florence" opera, by Richard Genee andJ. Rieger, music by Alfons Czibulkas. "Melodies of Ireland expresslyarranged for piano and organ." This book is a well arranged collectionof Irish instrumental music, both grave and gay, serious and comical,issued in very neat and attractive style, and sure to please. Publishedby Messrs. White, Smith & Co.

Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston.

Leaves of Shamrock, a collection of melodies of Ireland newly arrangedand adapted for the piano and organ.

"Leaves of Shamrock" is a book of fine appearance, and the price ismoderate. 80 cents, paper; $1.00, boards; $1.50, elegant cloth binding.Without being difficult, there is more to them than appears at firstglance, and there is nothing so very easy. The poet Moore was so takenwith the beauty of the ancient music of his country, that he composedpoems, many of them very beautiful, to quite a number of the melodies.These are all given in "Leaves of Shamrock" which contains full as manymore, or, in all, double the number that met the eye of the poet.

The French Elections.—The new Chamber will contain 381 Republicans and205 Catholics; but the colonies return 10 deputies, who will allprobably be Republicans. The strength of parties will thus be 391 to205, whereas in the last Chamber it was 462 to 95. Fifty-six departmentsare represented exclusively by Republicans; twenty-six are representedexclusively by Catholics.[Pg 107]

Obituary.

"After life's fitful fever they sleep well."

BISHOP.

The Funeral of the late Most Rev. Dr. Dorrian took place on Friday, 13thof November, when the lamented bishop was interred in the vault underthe episcopal throne in St. Patrick's Cathedral, in Belfast, amidst avast crowd of his mourning flock. Dr. Dorrian's health had been failingfor some time past, and about a fortnight before his death he wasattacked severely by congestion of the lungs. From this he rallied, butwas warned by his physician to be extremely careful. The good bishop,however, returned to his work with all his characteristic energy, and onthe very day after the doctor's warning attended three funerals outsideBelfast. Later, in the afternoon of the same day, he was seized withillness in his confessional, from which he had to be carried in a dyingstate. The last sacraments were administered on the same spot, and hewas afterwards removed with great difficulty to his residence. Duringthe following days he lay peacefully passing away, surrounded by hisdevoted priests; the Sisters of Mercy, among whom was the bishop'sniece, remaining in his house till after he had breathed his last. Hisenergy and love of labor were so extraordinary that almost to the veryend he seemed to expect to recover and return to work. When told that hehad not long to live, he said, "May the Lord's will be done," with themeekest submission. His mind was all along absorbed in heavenlythoughts, except when for a moment he would remember how the cause ofIreland was at stake, and asked what was being done towards the electionof a nationalist M. P. for Belfast. Shortly before his death, he seemedto fancy that he was still hearing confessions, and went on givingimaginary absolutions, and admonishing poor sinners, till, without agonyor pain, he went to his rest. While the seven o'clock Mass was beingcelebrated on the Feast of St. Malachy, in St. Malachy's Church, amessenger ascended the altar steps and spoke some words to theofficiating priest, whereupon the congregation knew, by the manner inwhich the priest suddenly bowed his head, that all was over, and thattheir good pastor had departed from among them. The fact that the Bishopof Down and Connor had passed away on the Feast of St. Malachy was notunnoticed. A devoted priest, who had been Dr. Dorrian's friend fromboyhood, and who had made a long journey to assist him in his lastmoments, remarked, "One would think that his holy patron had kept himfor his own feast in order to conduct him on that day into heaven."

CLERGYMEN.

Rt. Rev Mgr. Sears, Vicar-Apostolic of Newfoundland, died on Nov. 7, atStellarton, of dropsy. His history during the last seventeen years hasbeen the history of Newfoundland. His services were recognized by thePope, who four years ago invested him with the dignity of domesticprelate and the title of monsignor.

The Late Very Rev. Dr. Foran.—The funeral of this most distinguishedpriest, who after a most edifying life and three weeks of painfulillness, died a most edifying death, took place in the church ofBallingarry. His death has cast a gloom over the archdiocese, which inhis demise has sustained a great, almost an irreparable, loss. He wasits most highly-gifted, most highly-respected, and best-beloved priest,and upon the death of the late lamented and illustrious Dr. Leahy, ifthe great majority of the votes of his brother priests could have doneit, he had been their archbishop. He was a man of great intellect, ofgreat good sense, of vast and varied learning, and withal simple as achild, unselfish, unassuming, and inoffensive, meek and humble of heart;charitable in word and deed; sincere in his relations with God and man;tender to the poor and little ones; always attentive to his duties, everzealous for God's glory, never caring to make display or to gain theapplause of men. His whole life seemed regulated by the motto of theImitation, "Sublime words do not make a man just and holy, but avirtuous life maketh him dear to God."[Pg 108]

Death of the Very Rev. John Curtis, S. J.—A venerable patriarch hasjust passed away to his reward. Father John Curtis died recently at thePresbytery, Upper Gardiner Street, Dublin. He was in his ninety-secondyear, and had been for some months failing in health. Father Curtis wasborn in 1794, of respectable parents, in the city of Waterford. Havingbeen educated at Stonyhurst College, he entered the Society of Jesus atthe age of 20. As novice and scholastic he passed with much merit anddistinction through the various grades of probation and preparation bywhich the Jesuit is trained for his arduous work, and was ordainedpriest in the year 1825. Being a ripe scholar, well versed inliterature, ancient and modern, an able theologian, a fluent andimpressive speaker, he soon took a foremost place amongst the leadingpriests at his time.

The Very Rev. Canon Lyons, P.P.V.F., Spiddle, County Galway, diedrecently at the venerable age of seventy-four years. He was educated forthe priesthood at St. Jarlath's College, Tuam, while yet thatinstitution included a thorough theological course in its curriculum ofstudies. He was ordained in 1839, and speedily distinguished himself asa pastor of zeal and eloquence, indefatigable in his labors for thespiritual and temporal welfare of his flock. He built many churches andparochial schools, and was among the foremost of the clergymen who drovethe infamous Souper plague from West Connaught. Canon Lyons wascharitable to an extent that always left him poor in pocket but rich inthe love of his people. He was buried within the walls of his parishchurch and the funeral was attended by priests and people from manymiles around.

The death is announced of Rev. Francis Xavier Sadlier, S. J., at HolyCross College, Worcester, Mass., after a brief illness. He was born inMontreal, in 1852, and was the son of the late James Sadlier, who, withhis brother, the late Denis Sadlier, founded the well-known Catholicpublishing house of D. & J. Sadlier & Co. His mother is the well-knownCatholic authoress, Mary A. Sadlier. Father Sadlier was educated atManhattan College, and after a brief but brilliant career in journalismdecided to enter the priesthood. He was received into the Jesuitnovitiate at Sault-au-Recolet, Canada, on the 1st of November, 1873, andhad the happiness of being ordained at Woodstock last August. In thedeath of this gifted young priest the Society of Jesus has met with aloss which can only be accurately estimated by those to whom his perfectpurity of heart, deeply intellectual mind and most lovable characterhave endeared him for many years. We deeply sympathize with his agedmother and family. His mother had not seen him since his ordination, butwas present at the funeral, where she saw her loved son in death. Happymother to have such a son before her in heaven, where we trust he is nowenjoying the rewards of a well-spent life.

Rev. John J. McAuley, S. J., professor of rhetoric at Holy CrossCollege, died suddenly of apoplexy, at the residence of Dr. L. A. O.Callaghan, Worcester, Mass., on the afternoon of December 2. FatherMcAuley went with a party of the students from the college to skate atStillwater Pond, and during the recreation he broke through the ice andinto the water. He returned to the college and changed his clothing, andnot feeling very well, started off toward the city for a walk,accompanied by Father Langlois. He called on Dr. Callaghan, but beforereaching his house he became ill and had to be carried inside, where hesoon died, after the arrival of Rev. John J. McCoy, who, with FatherLanglois, performed the last offices. The deceased has been, for severalyears, attached to Holy Cross College, and is distinguished among theJesuits as a rhetorician of high order. His funeral will take place atthe college. This is the second death at the college within one month.

Rev. Father Ruland, C. SS. R., Professor of Moral Theology at theRedemptorist College, at Ilchester, Md., died on the 20th of November,of apoplexy. The Rev. Father was a venerable and well-known priest. Hisloss will be keenly felt by the community as he was a man of deeplearning and truly good.

Rev. Thaddeus P. Walsh, first pastor of Georgetown and Ridgefieldparishes, Connecticut, departed this life on the 10th of November, at 3o'clock, in St. Catherine's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., to which place hehad been taken. Friday, October 30th, Father Walsh went to New Haven onbusiness, and it was there that the first warning of sickness, and as itcame out, of death, came to him. He had an apopletic stroke of paralysiswhich affected his left side, rendering it almost powerless. Thefollowing Saturday evening he received[Pg 109] the last rites from the church,and on Tuesday morning he died. The funeral took place on the 13th ofNovember. There were present Rt. Rev. Bp. McMahon, some sixty priests,and a large concourse of his afflicted friends. Father Walsh was born inEaskey, County Sligo, Ireland, about fifty-five years ago. He wasordained priest in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, in 1880. Hisclassical course was made in St. Charles College, Ellicott City, Md.,and was begun when he had reached the age of forty years. Before he wentto college he lived in Meriden, where he saved money enough from dailytoil to pay for an education. He was a good and faithful priest in everysense of the word, and was most devotedly attached to his sacred duties.

The Rev. Father Simon P. Lonergan, pastor of St. Mary's, Montreal, diedthere, November 11. Father Lonergan was very well known and exceedinglypopular in that city, and, in fact, throughout the Dominion. He was aman of rare culture and experience, and through his death the CatholicChurch in Canada loses one of its strongest pillars. Father Lonergandied of typhoid fever, and to his labors among the sick during this timeof sad affliction in Montreal may be attributed the overwork whichbrought on the disease.

Many in Buffalo, says the Catholic Union and Times, will hear ofFather Trudeau's death, recently in Lowell, Mass., with sincere sorrow.Deceased was a distinguished Oblate Father, who, while engaged inparochial duties at the Holy Angels, in this city, won the reverentaffection of all who knew him by his priestly virtues and sunny nature.

SISTER.

The death is announced of Mother Mary, the Foundress and firstSuperioress of the Sisters of Immaculate Conception, a Louisianafoundation, whose mother house is located at Labadieville. Known in theworld as Miss Elvina Vienne, she belonged to one of the best Creolefamilies in the State. She died in her 51st year, and the twelfth of herreligious profession.

LAY PEOPLE.

Mr. Thomas Cosgrove, who, during the past half century, has occupied aprominent position in Providence, R. I., as a successful business man,died Sunday, Nov. 8th, at his residence on Somerset Street, in theeighty-first year of his age. The story of his life is a practicalillustration of the success which rewards persistent endeavor and strictattention to business. He was born in county Wexford, Ireland, and afterreceiving the advantages of a common-school education of that time, hebegun his life-work in the pursuit of various branches of business inNova Scotia, Portsmouth, N. H., and Portland, Me. In the year 1837 hecame to Providence, where his energy and business ability met withsuccessful results. He occupied a prominent position among the membersof the Catholic Church, and was a devout attendant at the services ofthe Cathedral. His wife died several years ago, and Mr. Cosgrove leavesfour children. James M., who was formerly an active member of the legalprofession in Providence, and has been prominently identified with thelocal Irish associations, is now an invalid. One of his daughters is thewidow of the late Richard McNeeley, who was engaged in the dry goods'business on Westminister Street, Providence, many years ago. The othertwo daughters are unmarried and reside at his late home on SomersetStreet. The funeral services of Mr. Thomas Cosgrove were held at thePro-Cathedral. They were largely attended by the congregation, of whichMr. Cosgrove was one of the oldest and most prominent members, and byCatholics and business men from different parts of the State, completelyfilling the sacred edifice. A solemn Pontifical High Mass of Requiem wascelebrated by Right Rev. Bishop Hendricken. At the conclusion of theMass, the bishop, assisted by the officiating clergymen, pronounced thefinal absolution, and spoke a few words relative to the life of thedeceased as a man and a Catholic.

Mr. James Waul, so long and favorably known to the Catholic public, inhis office as sexton of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, died athis home in Boston on the evening of Saturday, Nov. 7th. He was a nativeof the county of Galway, Ireland, but came to this country when quiteyoung. For the last fifteen years he had faithfully discharged theresponsible duties of the office above referred to, making many friendsthrough his uniform courtesy and kindly disposition. He will be sadlymissed in the church with which he was so long connected. The prayers ofthose whose[Pg 110] interests he cared for so earnestly will doubtless befervently offered for his eternal rest. The funeral took place from theChurch of the Immaculate Conception, on the morning of November 10th.The Rev. Father Quirk celebrated the Requiem Mass. The Rev. FatherBoursaud, rector, and the Rev. Father Charlier accompanied the body toCalvary Cemetery. May he rest in peace!

We regret to chronicle the death of James Valentine Reddy, Esq., awell-known member of the Richmond bar, who died at his residence in thatcity, on Nov. 5, of pneumonia. He was about thirty-six years of age, andremoved to that city from Alexandria, Va., where his relatives nowreside. He was of Irish birth, and his love for the old sod of hisforefathers was pure and strong. He was a member of the National League,and of several societies connected with St. Peter's Cathedral. He wasdevoted to the practice of his religious duties, and ere his spiritwinged its flight received its last consolations. Deceased had more thancommon gifts of oratory and was a ready penman. His disposition wasgenerous, and he was always ready to relieve distress when in his power.Mr. Reddy was a contributor to our Magazine, and although we never sawhim, we were led to esteem him highly. He was a great lover of Irishpoetry and song, and had, perhaps, as fine a private collection of themas there is in this country. His heart was indeed wound up in the dearold land; but he did not forget in this love the allegiance and fealtyhe owed to the land of his adoption. His life is but another of the manyexamples of Irishmen, who, living at home under a government of giant'sstrength used as a giant would use it, would be called a rebel; but whounder a government where all men are free and recognized becomes aworthy and faithful citizen, a good example for those around him. Thedeceased was born in the county of Kilkenny, near the village ofKilmacow, and about six miles from Waterford City. St. Patrick's Branchof the Catholic Knights of America, in their resolutions of condolement,say that he was a faithful, worthy and popular member, and theyfittingly voice the sentiment of all the Catholic and Irish-American andother civic societies, with which he was associated, in thus placing onrecord this expression of their sorrow over his early demise, and alsoin giving utterance to their deepest sympathy for, and in behalf of, thebereaved wife and children thus unhappily deprived of the fond love andtender care of a devoted husband and affectionate father.

Mr. John Reilly, a well-known and respected resident of Charlestown,Mass., died at his residence, 92 Washington Street, on Wednesday, Nov.4th, after an illness of nine months at the age of sixty-four years. Hewas perfectly conscious to the last, and bade each member of his familya fond farewell ere he closed his eyes in death. Mr. Reilly was acarpenter by trade, and in politics an active Democrat, being for anumber of years a member of the Ward and City Committee. He was also amember of the Old Columbian Guards of Boston. He leaves a widow, twosons and two daughters to mourn his loss. The funeral services were heldat St. Mary's Church on Saturday morning, Rev. Wm. Millerickofficiating, and the burial took place in the family lot at Calvary, thefollowing gentlemen acting as pall bearers: Messrs. Michael K. Mahoney,James Hearn, James H. Lombard, Thomas Hearn, Thomas B. Reilly and DavidHearn.

Mr. John Nagle, a prominent member of the Cathedral parish, died ofconsumption at his residence in Boston, on Sunday, November 29. Heleaves a family of five children. His funeral took place from theCathedral on December 1. The Rev. Father Boland celebrated the Mass,Fathers O'Toole and Corcoran being, respectively, Deacon and Subdeacon.The friends of the deceased were present in large numbers.

In this city, on the 27th of November, Mrs. Catherine Daly, aged 74years. She; was born in Bandon, county Cork, in 1811. She had been aresident of Boston some forty years. Her death was peaceful as her lifehad been good and charitable. Her remains were interred from the Churchof the Immaculate Conception, where a Mass of Requiem was said for therepose of her soul, which may God rest in peace. The interment tookplace at Calvary Cemetery.

Bashfulness.—Do not yield to bashfulness. Do not isolate yourself,sitting back in a corner, waiting for some one to come and talk withyou. Step out; have something to say. Though you may not say it well,keep on. You will gain courage and improve. It is as much your duty toentertain others as theirs to amuse you.

*** END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DONAHOE'S MAGAZINE, VOLUME 15, NO. 1, JANUARY 1886 ***

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Donahoe's Magazine, Volume 15, No. 1, January 1886 (2024)
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